PSYC 333 Week 1 notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cody Moore on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 333 at Kansas taught by Christopher Cushing in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
PSYC 333 Week 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Developmental Psychology and its Research Strategies January 272015 Nature and nurture Nature refers to our biological endowment especially the genes we receive from our parents 0 The Manning family 3 members played professional football Nurture refers to the wide range of environments both physical and social that influence our development The active child Children contribute to their own development from early in life and their contributions increase and they grow older Three of the most important contributions during the children s first years 0 Attention problems 0 Use of language 0 Play Continuous and discontinuous development Continuous development development that gradually emerges 0 Ex as boys age they throw faster balls in baseball Discontinuous development that emerges in stages Object permanence the understanding that an object still exists even when you can t see it o 02 year olds don t have object permanence when they hit a certain point in their development they suddenly develop this ability Mechanisms of developmental change Neural influencesprocesses o Neural pruning the processes of the brain getting rid of neurons that it no longer uses or needs Use it or lose it o Neural plasticity the process of forming new neural connections 0 Pathology diseases and the science behind them The developing brain is a work in progress Environment acts as a catalyst to trigger the brain to make changes Environmental experiences are critical to the differentiation and development of brain ssue Children can hear the difference in phonemes in languages as you age you become less proficient at hearing those languages because your brain prunes out the ones you don t hear or use The more people that live in a house with a baby that are over the age of 5 the better the child s language development o If there are children under the age of 5 however the effect of the baby s language development is actually negative Sociocultural context Refers to the physical social cultural economic and historical circumstances that make up any child s environment Contexts differ within and between cultures 0 Cosleeping 0 Breast feeding until toddlerage Individual differences These individual differences in children arise quickly during development and can be influenced by a number of different factors including peers parents treatment by others environment genes etc Research and children s welfare Child development research yields practical benefits in diagnosing children s problems and helping children overcome them PSYC 333 Week 1 Research and children s welfare cont 0 Children with autism that went to a doll s fake birthday party did not play along as well as those who did not have any type of Autism Spectrum Disorder Scientific method Studies must be 0 Replicable others must be able to completely replicate study 0 Reliable consistent information over time and across observers 0 Valid measures what it is supposed to measure January 29 2015 Self report methodologies Nomothetic typical child Ideographic a particular or given child 0 Predictors of physical activity Timeinvariantfactors Selfefficacy social support Autonomous motivation Timevarying factors Feeling energetic Feeling tired No effect observed for and affect PETE ecological momentary assessment app Zephyr Bioharness 30 Actigraph wActisIeep GTx3 Observational Methodology Naturalistic observation 0 Strengths easily applied to infants no verbal skills needed Shows behavior in every day life 0 Limitations Rare or socially undesirable behaviors may not occur difficult to isolate cause of action or developmental trend observer may change behavior videotapetime may change this If a child knows that a behavior is socially inappropriate they may change it because of the presence of the observer Structured observations 0 Conducted in the lab or controlled setting behavior can be observed surreptitiously o Strengths all participants are exposed to the same environment 0 Limitations results may not represent real life Case study approach 0 A detailed description of a single individual or group 0 Strengths depth of information 0 Limitations lack of generalization Ethnography 0 Collect data by living within the cultural community for an extended period 0 Strengths understanding cultural conflicts and potential impact on development 0 Limitations subjective may not be generalizable Psychophysiological 0 Examine relationship between physiological responses and behavior Heart rate EEGERPs ERPs derived from averaging scores on the EEG o Strengths perception that have captured something real 0 Limitations what aspect of the stimulus caught the attention of the child 0 Changes in physiology hunger fatigue reaction to equipment not the stimuli Correlational design 0 Are two or more variables meaningfully related 0 Correlation coefficient 100 to 100 indicated strength Sign indicates direction PSYC 333 Week 1 Observational Methodology cont Absolute distance from zero tells you the strength 0 Correlations do not equal causation Experimental design 0 Assesses cause and effect relationships between two variables Independent variable modified variable Dependent variable controlled by IV the aspect of behavior measured in the study Confounding variable a factor other than the IV that could explain differences in the DV Field experiment an experiment taking place in a naturalistic setting Natural quasi experiment measuring the impact of a naturally occurring event IV can not be manipulated and participants are not randomly designed Bobo the clown studies 2 sets of children were placed in a room with a clown doll One group witnessed an adult beating the clown before the other did not The group of children who witnessed the violence exhibited violence themselves and the group that did not witness it did not exhibit violence toward the doll Crosssectional design 0 When people of different ages are studied at the same time o Cohort group of the same age exposed to similar experiences 0 Strengths used most often quick and easy conclusions are likely to be valid 0 Limitations cohort effects any differences observed may be due to cultural or historical factors Longitudinal design 0 Same participants observed repeatedly over time o Strengths can assess stability identify normative and individual development 0 Limitations costly and time consuming practice effects improvement due to familiarity selective attrition people drop out crossgenerational problem conclusions limited to those who are that age Sequential designs 0 Cohort longitudinal and crosssectional o Strengths analysis of cohort design more efficient 0 Limitations none Microgenetic design 0 Illuminate processes that promote developmental change repeatedly expose children ready for a developmental change to experiences thought to produce that change 0 Monitor behavior as it changes 00000 O
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