PSYC 333 Week 2 notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cody Moore on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 333 at Kansas taught by Christopher Cushing in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
PSYC 333 Week 2 Chapter 2 Hereditary Influences on Development February 3 2015 Conception Zygote 2 cell organism that is 120th the size of the head of a pin 0 Formed from the genetic material contained in the sperm and egg cells 0 Each zygote has 46 chromosomes 0 Each chromosome has thousands of genes Mother and father each contribute 23 chromosomes to the cell Mitosis 0 Cell division Process of cell division through which cells duplicate themselves Continues during the life course Meiosis Germ cells only sperm and ova Why there is genetic variability among siblings Crossing over Problems down syndrome moderate intellectual disability What factors contribute to phenotypes Patterns of inheritance 0 Simple dominant recessive inheritance 14 of the population is near sighted o Incomplete dominance sicklecell anemia o Polygenetic inheritance most human traits we really care about are determined by multiple genes Environment Biology interaction Epigenetics 0 Gene expression turning them on and off Congenital defects and testing Congenital defects disorders present from birth 0 Not always detected at birth Blood samples for genetic screening are collected from a heel prick before the newborn is discharged from the hospital 0 Chromic villus sampling 0 Performed by week 89 of pregnancy 0 Needle inserted through the abdomen into the chorionic membrane 0 Results in 24 hours 0 Chance of miscarriage 150 Amniocentesis o Performed by week 1114 of pregnancy 0 Needle inserted through the abdomen into uterus and fetal cells are extracted from amniotic fluid 0 Chance of miscarriage 1150 Hereditability coefficient H r identical r fraternal twins x 2 Critical vs sensitive period Critical period limited time span during which developing organisms are biologically prepared to display adaptive patterns of development provided that they are given adequate stimulation Sensitive period optimal time span for the emergence of competencies and behavior organism is particularly sensitive to environmental influences PSYC 333 Week 2 Other key definitions Mutations changes in the chemical structure of one of more genes that produce a new phenotype Monozygotic twins single zygote divides and twins are genetically identical Dizygotic fraternal twins two ova released and fertilized by different sperm are as genetically similar as any siblings Reaction range the range of possible phenotypes for a given genotype Ethology the study of bioevolutionary basis of behavior and development with a focus on the survival of the individual Modern evolutionary theory study of the bioevolutionary basis of behavior and development with a focus on the survival of genes Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth February 5 2015 Embryonic period Endoderm internal organs mesoderm muscle tissue and ectoderm sensory organs skin hair nails Embryo support system placenta umbilical cord amnion Primitive streak develops first sign of human structure eventually forms CNS Head facial features extremities develop Fetal period Sex differentiation Digestive and excretory systems show activity organs complete development Brain growth increases size by 6x neurons and synapses Nails beginning of teeth hair Movements and significant weight gain between 69 months up to 5 pounds 22 weeks age of viability outside the womb In the womb Uterine wall Placenta attached to the uterine wall nourishment Chorion Amnion shock absorption Umbilical cord blood flow Critical periods in prenatal development Different parts of the body are affected by teratogens differently at different times Teratogen substances and conditions that increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities 0 Any agent that can harm an embryo or fetus Risk analysis weighting the chances that a particular teratogen will affect the fetus Important factors 0 Timing of exposure 0 Amount of exposure 0 Genetic vulnerabilities Effects of teratogens are most serious when a structure is forming Susceptibility to harm is influenced by genetic makeup of mother and embryo Father s exposure prior to conception may affect embryo Longterm effects depend on postnatal environment General principles 0 Susceptibility of the organism depends on its developmental stage A teratogen s effects are likely to be specific to a particular organ Individuals vary in their susceptibility to teratogens The mother s physiological state influences susceptibility The greater the concentration of a teratongentic agent the greater the risk OOOO PSYC 333 Week 2 Specific Teratogens Alcohol 0 Fetal Alcohol Effects FAE Different from FAS Social drinking 13 per day Greatest risk binge drinking 5 drinks per day Slow physical growth poor motor skills attention difficulties verbal learning difficulties Subnormal intellectual performance Father s drinking can be harmful o FAS amp FAE characteristics Abnormal facial characteristics Short nose Low nasal bridge Skin folds at the corner of the eye Thin upper lip 0 No filtrum Abnormalities to libs and heart I Slow physical growth Retarded mental development Rubella o Blindness deafness cardiac abnormalities mental retardation 0 Most dangerous during first trimester 0 Best not to conceive if they you haven t been vaccinated Toxoplasmosis o Caused by eating undercooked meat and handling cat feces 0 Causes eye and brain damage during first trimester o Induces miscarriage later in pregnancy 0 Gardeners look out for this Syphillis 0 Early treatment prevents harm o 95 transmission in untreated mothers 0 Damages eyes ears done heart brain 0 Can result in miscarriage 0 High arched palate Genital Herpes 0 Can cross placenta but most infections happen during passage thru birth canal o Blindness brain damage neurological damage AIDS 0 Caused by HIV 0 Passed through placenta while giving birth or while breast feeding o 25 transmission rate 0 Antivirals reduce transmission rate by 70 o 50 of HIV infants live past 6 Thalidomide 0 Used to prevent nausea and vomiting 0 Tested on animals and was safe 0 Caused defects if taken in first two months of pregnancy Eyes ears noses hearts Limbs long bones Feet and hands connected to torso Prescription and OTC Drugs 0 Aspirin growth retardation death 0 lbuprofen prolonged delivery 0 Caffeine miscarriage o Lithium heart defects 0 Oral contraceptives heart defects Cigarettes o Cleft lip o Lungs o Miscarriage PSYC 333 Week 2 Specific Teratogens cont 0 Eptopic pregnancy 0 SIDS o Nicotine in fetus 0 Low birth weight most common Mariiuana o Emotional regulation in males 0 Poorer readingspelling at 10 years old 0 Most depression and anxiety Narcotics heroin methadone 0 6080 born addicted o Breathingswallowing problems 0 Normal developmental progress by age 2 Cocaine o Miscarriage premature birth 0 Sleep disturbances 0 Lower IQ 0 Poor language development skills Radiation 0 Death retardation o 3 mile island XRays ChemicalsPollutants 0 Lead mercury deformities mental retardation o Polychlorinated Biphenyl less neurologically mature o 2 low mercury fish servings per week for pregnant or breastfeeding women Other conditions that affect the fetus Mom s attitude towards her pregnancy or stress during the pregnancy Mother s nutrition 0 Consume enough calories in a well balanced diet 0 Increase intake of folic acid calcium mg zinc and iron 0 Folic acid reduces down syndrome spina bifita 0 Medical supervision is necessary as excessive consumption can be harmful 0 Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Mother s stress 0 Immediate effects of elevated levels of the hormone cortisol impede oxygen and nutrients to fetus 0 Long term effects weakened immune system linked to poor eating smoking drugs alcohol use 0 Counseling to managereduce stress 0 Moderate levels may aid in development Prenatal care Information about nutrition and teratogens Education Early detection of problems Methods of prenatal testing 0 Chorionic villi sampling 0 Amniocentesis o Sonogram Variations of childbirth Medicated analgesia anesthesia oxytocics Natural breathing techniques Cesarean section Prepared childbirth taking a class in childbirth Cultural differences US 1 at home World most at home Obstetricians midwives doulas PSYC 333 Week 2 Cultural differences cont Birthing centers Apgar test A test given to newborns at 1 5 and 10 minutes after delivery Each category is scored from 02 0 Oabsentpoor score 0 2best score 0 Final score of 010 Appearance skin color Pulse heart rate Grimace response reflexes Activity muscle tone Respiration breathing rate and effort
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