Sociology Lecture 6
Sociology Lecture 6 SOC100
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CHEM 142 COLLEEN CRAIG - GENERAL CHEMISTRY
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Martens on Wednesday February 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC100 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Bromann in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/15
Social Strati cation 0 Social strati cation is a relatively xed hierarchical arrangement in society by which groups have different access to resources power and perceived social worth a Social strati cation is a system of structured social inequality 0 All societies have a system of social strati cation some very complex some very simple a Complex societies often stratify according to social class 0 This is in uenced by occupation income and education race gender and even age region of residence ethnicity and national origin 0 In US primarily occupation income and education Estate Caste amp Class Systems Strati cation systems are usually categorized into one of these 3 types 1 Estate is a system in which a small elite group owners of property and power has total control over society s resources 2 Caste is a system where status is assigned based on one s ascribed status ie being born into something such as being black or white 3 Class is a system based primarily on achieved status however one s ascribed status can matter 12 Things to Remember About Strati cation 1 Class is a system of strati cation 2 Class in quality is supported by ideology 3 In the US this ideology emphasizes equal opportunity merit and individual effort 4 Class is more than just income differences Weber emphasized 39Iife chances 5 The US class system has four main groups upper middle working and lower class Each has a distinct relationship to the economy and a distinct lifestyle 6 There is much income inequality in the US and wealth is heavily concentrated Since the 1970 s concentration of wealth is much greater than the past 7 The class of a person s family has a major in uence on the class she or he will belong to as an adult individual effort and merit accounts for less than position in a social category 8 The impact of the class on daily life is seen in many areas including health work marriage politics and lifestyle 9 Poverty rates have remained stable in the US since the 1970 s 10 Class is reproduced from generation to generation Schools and families play a critical role in this reproduction Most people who are wealthy inherited the wealth 11 Global strati cation exists and has a major impact on the lifestyles of people throughout the world including in the US 12 Economic inequality is profoundly affected by public policies 0 In the US public policies often serve to increase inequality 0 As a result the US has a higher rate of poverty higher income inequality and more highly concentrated wealth than in comparable nations A system of strati cation is characterized by 3 elements Unequal distribution of valuable resources Distinctive groups that make up the carious strata in society 0 An ideology or system of beliefs which explains and justi es the inequality Distinctive Groups 0 39Classes of people 0 People differ across social class categories 0 Lifestyle differences that matter exercise Ideology A system of beliefs that explains and justi es the existence of inequality 0 Every form of inequality has an accompanying ideology which makes the inequality seem inevitable normal natural and perfectly acceptable 0 Example quotGod s willquot often inequality was justi ed by harking to quotGod s willquot 0 Divine Right ruling Monarchs of Europe would claim they rules from a Godgiven right That God had told them they had to be the rulers of society 0 In the US we justify basic inequality by believing and being socialized to believe in 0 Equal opportunity 0 Meritocracy o Individualism Core Ideology of Strati cation in the US 1 Everyone has the equal opportunity to succeed but is not guaranteed success 2 Success is based on merit no on wealth family ties or other special statuses 3 Achieving success results from individual ability and hard work 0 Together these beliefs suggest that class strati cation is the outcome of individual characteristics unimpeded by structural constraints and unaided by group privilege In other words success is due to hard work and ability failure is due to individual shortcomings The message of such an ideology is clear existing system of inequality is fair 0 To state these ideas more precisely American ideology generally includes the intertwined notion of equal opportunity meritocracy and individualism For those in power this ideology justi es their power along with o Convincing people that their success is only through merit and hard work 0 That people are poor only because they either lack merit or are lazy Studies show that most people do not believe that class inequality is only the result of merit and individual effort but 0 Enough people do actually believe it and o Belief in the ideology of individual merit and achievement is often a source of hope for the downtrodden keeps them paci ed Wealth Inequality An increase in the concentration of wealth has occurred in the US since the 19805 0 The United States is one of the most unequal nation in the world using wealth as the criteria Why Increasing Inequality is a Danger To Us All 0 The American middle class is disappearing a decline in employment in unionized lowskill goodsproducing industries replaced with growing nonunionized service and technology industries 0 Political extremism and violence often results when income inequality increases Family Effects People work more and have less time for leisure of family activities because of economic deterioration The divorce rate has increased with inequality parents that are the least well off are the most likely to divorce Once divorced less than half of divorced women with children ever receive any nancial support form their exhusbands Health Effects Poverty leads to physical and socialpsychological stress which leads to increased susceptibility to illness and premature death High infant mortality rates compared with other industrialized nations result from the poor provision of sufficient food adequate shelter universal health care and immunizations Low income carries a risk factor of ill health US has highest infant mortality rate than any other country Health Effects The rich have increasingly failed to invest productively and instead are increasingly likely to tie their money up in consumptionoriented purchases or in taxhaven investments not directly concerned with business growth Lower income people including college students increasingly fall into debt attempting to afford life s necessities To much debt id a drag on economic growth lncome inequalities slow economic growth income disparities discourage or prohibit workers from being educated and trained to their fullest capacity which translates directly into a less productive labor force Countries with more equal income distributions have higher productivity and economic growth rates US income inequality and tax rate on the wealthy is more unequal now than it was during the Great Depression Student Debt Total student debt has nearly tripled over the past eight years a new report form the New York Federal Reserve has found Total student debt stands at 966 billion as of the fourth quarter of 2012 the NY Fed said in press materials with a 70 percent increase in both the number of borrowers and the average balance per person Fewer people with student loans are buying homes CFPB Student Loan Ombudsman Rohit Chopra told reporters quotMany of us have raised questions about the student debt domino effect on the economyquot Global Strati cation Understanding the social forces that exist beyond the individual is very important when studying global strati cation What we eat and rink was likely produced somewhere outside the US 0 People in poor countries both young women and children are paid pennies a day to feed and clothe us Issues 0 Those at the top of the global strati cation system have enormous power over the fate of other nations 0 The inequality between rich and poor nations can cause much hatred and resentment The rich countries are getting richer and the poor countries are getting poorer as a result of the interconnectedness of our planet 0 The consequences of social inequality can be measured in terms of life expectancy infant mortality and access to health services Global Wealth Most of the richest countries are in Europe 0 Most of the poorest countries are in central Africa 0 On average life in poor countries is desperate o More than half the world s population 35 billion people live in the poorest 45 countries 0 Many poor countries are rich with natural resources the corporations exploit the poor to work for almost nothing Global Networks of Power amp In uence 0 We live in a globally strati ed world with an integrated network of both economic and political relationships 0 Power is the ability of a country to exercise control over other countries of groups of countries 0 Types of power include military economic and political o The powerful core countries are Japan the US and countries in Europe Race amp Global Inequality 0 Vast differences in life chances are lifestyle between the countries of the world with White populations and those with Black populations o The rice core countries those that dominate the world system are largely European the United States and Japan with mostly White or yellow populations 0 The populations of the poor countries of the world mostly in Africa Asia or South America are largely people of color 0 More than one billion people in the world suffer from malnutrition and hunger mostly people of color World Systems Theory 0 World systems theory stems from the work on Immanuel Wallerstein o Argues that our world economic system must be understood as a single unit 0 The level of economic development is explained by understanding each country s place and role in the world economic system 0 This model divides the world into three sectors 0 Core 1st world 0 Semiperiphera 2ncl world 0 Peripheral 3rd world International Migration International migration sometimes legal sometimes not has radically changed the racial and ethnic composition of populations not only in the US but also in many European and Asian nations 0 Essential to the economy of the Core countries 0 Some are professional workers such as physicians engineers and electricians 0 Others are manual laborers such as ditch diggers gardeners and cleaning crews 0 Not saying anything about people wanting to come to US because that DOES NOT matter The come because they are essential to the economy to the core countries Ex Mexicans come to US for cheap labor Consequences of Global Strati cation The poorest countries have 0 The largest populations 12 of the globe s people live in the poorest nations The highest birth rates The highest death rates premature High fertility rates 5 children born per woman Highest numbers of children 0000 0 Fast growing populations Other Consequences Degradation of the environment is a problem that affects all nations South America Africa Mexico and Southeast Asia are being depleted of natural resources Feminization ofPoverty Poverty is usually felt more by women than by men globally A US Feminist concern Waramp Terrorism The power and af uence of the US makes it a target by those who resent its in uence Inequality Where there are large populations or poor illiterate and disadvantaged people it is easy for some to in uence their thinking and behavior Suicide bombers are rarely rich Global Inequality amp Poverty Global Wealth Inequality wealthiest 10 of world s population has 85 of all wealth while the poorest 12 ofhumanity has 1 Global Povertv 13 of all humanity 14 billion live in absolute p0vertymeaning lifethreatening poverty amp suffer chronic hungermalnutrition30 of those living in Africa Female Poverty 70 of those who suffer absolute poverty are female Child Povertv about 12 of all children in the world live on 2day or less and 100 million city children beg steal prostitute themselves or work from drug gangs in order to provide income for their family
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