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Week of 2/8 Notes

by: Polina Vulikh

Week of 2/8 Notes PSYCH355

Marketplace > Psychlogy > PSYCH355 > Week of 2 8 Notes
Polina Vulikh
GPA 2.7
Adolescent Psychology
Prof. Scherer

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About this Document

Adolescent Psych notes from 2/8 to 2/12
Adolescent Psychology
Prof. Scherer
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Adolescent Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Polina Vulikh on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH355 at a university taught by Prof. Scherer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 194 views.


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Date Created: 02/12/15
Two types of cognitive maturation warrant special attention Executive functioning is a category of mental processes that enable people to engage in selfcontrol that allow for goaloriented behavior Inhibiting updating shifting planningorganizing monitoring The maturation of the prefrontal cortex and the strengthening of executive functions also leads to improved emotion regulation through Emotional suppression Cognitive reappraisal What seems certain is that as children enter adolescence they begin to re ect on their thinking more this is called metacognition Metacognition has several components Metacognitive knowledge knowing about thinking and how it works Metacognitive monitoring Metacognitive control As age and thought develop adolescents become less egocentric in their thinking and are more able to do social perspective taking and tolerate the ambiguity inherent to reality and truth In contrast to younger children who tend to be fairly naive and dogmatic about ideas and beliefs adolescents who are developing formal operational thought tend to be more skeptical They question more and tend to recognize that truth is variable and dependent on perspective Young children have been classified as na39i39ve realists Elementary age children are classified as defensive realists Adolescents who are developing formal operational thought tend to be dogmatic and skeptical Ultimately some people develop postskeptical rationalism One other idea that has been investigated by adolescence researchers is if and how does intelligence change during adolescence One way psychologists have for measuring intelligence is through the use of standardized intelligence tests These assessment tools have developmental norms or a typical level of performance for the average person at any given age Then we use statistical analyses to determine how far above or below the mean an individual is These tests have the advantages of being standardized they are fairly reliable and valid They generally measure mental abilities Reasoning verbal comprehension shortterm memory spatial abilities perceptual and processing speed quantitative knowledge visual and auditory processing Two contemporary theorists also deserve attention Sternberg has proposed the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence that is composed of 3 subcategories Contextual knowledge WHAT CONSTITUTES INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR DEPENDS ON A PERSON S CULTURAL CONTEXT AND HOW ABLE THEY ARE AT MAN IPULATING AND ALTERING THEIR SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Experiential knowledge TO WHAT EXTEND DOES AND INDIVIDUAL HAVE THE CAPACITY TO USE PAST EXPERIENCE TO HELP THEM RESPOND TO NOVEL CIRCUMSTANCES IN OTHER WORDS THE ABILITY TO ACCESS PRIOR KNOWLEDGE AND APPLY IT Componential PERFORMANCE COMPONENTS ARE WHAT IS NEEDED TO ACTUALLY DO A TASK KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION COMPONENTS ARE HOW WE GO ABOUT ACQUIRING INFORMATION Howard Gardner also proposed a theory of Multiple Intelligences Gardner proposed that individuals have particular kinds of intelligence that is biologically determined Linguistic intelligence musical intelligence logicmathematical intelligence spatial intelligence bodykinesthetic intelligence interpersonal intelligence intrapersonal intelligence Gardner believed that it was silly to think of people as having a general intelligence instead he believed that people tended to vary in the strength of their various intelligences Some people will excel in one form of intelligence but won t be so good in another In general adolescents level of intelligence doesn t ordinarily change a whole lot although their knowledge and information processing does Some researchers have been interested in whether gender differences in intelligence emerge during adolescence Generally few gender differences have been found One issue that has grabbed attention is a slight gender difference in spatial ability The Societal Construction of Adolescence and Sociocultural Issues Affecting Adolescent Development While the word adolescence has been found in the vocabulary of the 15th century the concept of adolescence as a developmental stage of prolonged dependency on family beyond sexual maturation is a fairly modern construction And the path to adulthood through adolescence varies considerably depending on social cultural and economic factors One feature that seems to be common across groups is societal change In economically developed countries primarily the Western world adolescence gained notoriety as a developmental period of great psychological upheaval primarily THESE SOCIETIES COULD SOCIALLY AND ECONOMICALLY AFFORD TO PROLONG THE PERIOD DURING WHICH CHILDREN HAD THE STATUS AS MINORS AND CREATED A VARIETY OF SOCIOLEGAL CONSTRUCTS THAT DEFINED IT In the US three sociolegal phenomena in particular helped to create adolescence as a stage of prolonged status as a minor The institution of child labor laws The establishment of a compulsory education The institution of the juvenile justice system SO CONSISTENT WITH THE TRANSACTIONAL INTERACTIVE MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT IT S NECESSARY TO CONCEPTUALIZE ADOLESCENCE AS MUCH AS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION AS IT IS A PSYCHOLOGICAL STAGE It is now quite clear from the epidemiological and psychological studies that adolescents do NOT experience tumultuous upheaval and alienation from family But similar social change is occurring in other societies as well that have defining in uences on how adolescence is defined The kinds of formative experiences adolescents have depend in part on the ways in which the society they live in regards them 2122015 Adolescents are generally regarded as initiates and societies and cultures have varied ways of inducting them into adulthood Some cultures and societies have elaborate rites of passage that adolescents must endure before being given access to adult privileges knowledge and sexuality These rites often create a separation between the youth and his or her family esp boys from mothers this is called extrusion The Western world and the US in particular has fewer and less dramatic initiation rituals In America and many other societies adolescents are regarded with ambivalence at best Sometimes adults look at youth with envy and empathy other times they regard adolescents as disrespectful and dangerous Legal institutions have tended to ignore adolescence as a developmental stage classifying adolescents either as children or adults depending on the circumstances and politics So inconsistencies abound children in elementary school can be subject to the adult justice system and penalties while high school students are not legally competent to make their own medical decisions and business contracts Practically speaking voting age laws mark the boundary between minor status and adult status In the US the age of majority is 18 for all practical purposes This binary classification system works fairly well in most circumstances protecting adolescents from immature decisions and behaviors while extending some legal privileges But this has been less true in the justice system Since the increase in youth Violent crimes in the 80s statutory changes have shifted from reform to punishment It is important to adequately consider the importance of race culture and ethnicity in the developmental process There are a variety of important cultural factors that have implications for how we understand adolescent development Cultural experience seems to play a large role in how an individual construes the self Some cultural groups most notably Asian African Latin American and Southern European cultures emphasize interdependence The self is defined in relation to others esp family In contrast other cultural groups most notably North American middle class define self by internal attributes re ecting a sense of independence The false uniqueness e ect The tendency to underestimate the extent to which others also possess one s desirable traits Culture and motivation In western cultures and especially among men excellent is linked with striving for individual success Non western cultural groups tend to define success in terms of social and familial goals and duties Nonwesterners tend to attribute success to hard work versus western cultural groups tendency to attribute success to natural ability The standards used to judge normality and abnormality are frequently based on EuroAmerican norms Ethnic populations often consist of a variety of cultural groups Moreover many ethnic populations and cultural groups are heterogeneous and have as many intraethnic differences as commonality Some ejfects attributable to culture may be a consequence of SES Often people with the same ethnic identity but from different SES are quite different Adolescence may be the first time ethnic minority adolescents become aware of how they may be perceived by the majority white culture and the reality of racism and prejudice Ethnic minority adolescents become aware of how they may be perceived by the majority white culture and the reality of racism and prejudice Minority adolescents become more aware of the power of the majority culture and the disadvantages of minority status In general the minority populations in our country occupy difference resource environments largely impoverished or disadvantaged ones Because ethnic minorities have different cultural norms family constellations exposure to lesser degrees of opportunity and various disadvantages such as prejudice the development of their children from that of the majority population In recent years considerable attention has been focused on how neighborhood experiences and community resources affect adolescents and the transition into adulthood There are several features about neighborhoods and communities that in uence development SES socioeconomic status ethnic diversity immigrant concentration and residential stability all have significant in uence on the development of children and adolescents


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