HY 104 April 6 Lecture
HY 104 April 6 Lecture ARH253
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paula Ramirez on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH253 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jenny Tucker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
April 6, 2016 Lecture Notes VII. Role of the U.S. Supreme Court -violation of civil liberties is seen in WWII just like in WWI -Japanese-Americans challenge constitutionality of the curfew, the evacuation, and their confinement. A. Hirabayashi v. U.S. (1943) -Challenged the idea of the curfew -Applied only against Japanese-Americans -Found to be constitutional by the Supreme Court; okay to do in times of war -Overturned about 4 years after Korematsu was overturned B. Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) -Challenged the evacuation order -Found to be constitutional by the Supreme Court; okay to do in times of war -Overturned in 1984; found government misconduct; prosecutors withheld evidence C. Endo v. U.S. (1944) -Decided the same day as Korematsu -Challenged the fact that once you confined someone, you have to tell them what the charges are against them; you can’t just take someone to jail for no reason -Won her case; Supreme Court says it’s only okay to confine someone for a little while but you have to tell them what they’re being charged -1988: Congress passes a reparations bill; give an apology; says it was a violation against civil liberties; pass a bill issuing payment of $20,000 to each of the survivors of the internment camp; cost the government about $1 billion ______________________________________________________________________________ World War II Diplomacy and the Origins of the Cold War -non-shooting war that lasts from 1945-1989; longest war -fought between the U.S. and Soviet Union -roots in WWII I. War in Europe A. The Big Three Alliance: United States, Great Britain, Soviet Union -Franklin Roosevelt (U.S.); Winston Churchill (Great Britain); Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) are the leaders; regularly meet to plan war strategies -riddled with tension & distrust -Defeating Hitler will take priority B. Opening the Second Front in Europe -1941-1942: Soviets fighting Germany alone in Europe; Stalin is pushing for the “Second Front”; wants major engagement in Western Europe -FDR is anxious to get involved in Europe; Persuaded by Churchill that we’re not ready for a front in France, let’s start in North Africa where Germans are fighting -Stalin is angry; North Africa campaign won’t help him -Nov. 1942: Americans invade North Africa; region is secured for the Allies by May 1943 -Go up the boot of Italy to continue the fight; Stalin is upset again; Soviets are bearing the brunt of the German war machine -June 6, 1944: D-Day; major invasion of continental Europe (Normandy) -By August 1944, Paris is secured; liberated; Nazis are in retreat -Battle of the Bulge: greatest land battle during European conflict; Dec. 1944-Jan 1945 C. Yalta Conference, 1945 -Occurs in February in Yalta -What will happen in Eastern Europe? (Poland, Czech Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia) -Will they be democratic? Will people be able to choose their own government? -Decided there will be elections. -Soviet Union agrees when Germans are defeated, they will join the war against the Japanese. -Soviets agree to join the United Nations. -Major sticking point: Whether Poland will be democratic. Soviets wants Poland to be friendly; communists. U.S. wants them to be democratic. Poland decides to be a “puppet state” to the Soviets. -April 12, 1945: Roosevelt dies; people were critical of Roosevelt- sellout to Commies; he was elected 4 times -Americans didn’t want to fight Soviets -Germany surrenders in May 1945 II. War in the Pacific -got us into WWII A. May 1942; Japan controls Southeast Asia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Philippines -kick U.S. out of Philippines -moving aggressively B. June 1942: The tide turns -Battle of Midway: Island guards Hawaii; U.S. wins -until August 1945; Island hopping campaign; push Japanese back -every fight was difficult -predicted 1 million causalities for Americans alone C. 1945: Iwo Jima and Okinawa III. The decision to drop the atomic bomb -Was it necessary from a military standpoint? -Could we have defeated Japan using convention weapons? -If it was ready earlier, would we have dropped it on Europe? (due to discrimination/racism towards Japanese) -Was weapon a warning for the Soviets? A. Background -begins in 1930s -scientists who had fled to the U.S.; wrote to Roosevelt they were worried about Germans creating a super-bomb; Roosevelt received this in 1939 -Germans had access to uranium B. Manhattan Project -code word for the project -goal was to examine possibility of a fission/atomic bomb -scientists are housed in labs across country; Los Alamos had the main/chief lab -By 1942: 120,000 scientists and other personnel working to create bomb -military project under supervision of Leslie Grove -J. Robert Oppenheimer: controlled the technical/scientific experiments -Grove & Oppenheimer butt heads -expensive; secretive -Pilots are training in Utah by Colonel Tibbets -Tibbets named his plane Enola Gay after his mother; it dropped the atomic bomb -bomb is 9,000 lbs -practiced in groups of 3 (drop bomb, take photographs, etc) -bank away when the bomb is dropped; told very little about bomb -Japan is the target; Germany wasn’t ready by the bomb’s completion -Truman is chosen as V.P.; least objectable; told by his advisors bomb should be used as soon as it’s ready and without warning; dropped on a civilian center that hasn’t experienced much devastation.
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