Psychological Disorders and Treatment Ch 10
Psychological Disorders and Treatment Ch 10 Psy-b 110
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gloria Notetaker on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy-b 110 at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis taught by Sandra Hellyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
Psych lecture and book notes Chapter 10: Psychological Disorders and Treatment Notes from Lecture Psychological Disorders Factors that have to be present(3) o Personal Distress: Problem(disorder) should be troubling for the individual with the problem. This is usually emotional pain and it is subjective from person to person(what causes pain to one person doesn’t cause pain to another) o Functional Impairment: Not being able to do daily functions like going to work or maintaining social relationships. Not able to take care of yourself. o Internal Dysfunction: Origin of the problem is biological of psychological. Not something from your external environment. If you are acting a certain way because you are drunk, that is external All behaviors follow along on a continuum. o We all start as happy, and as things change, we go down the continuum and can eventually have a psychological disorder. Causes of Psychological Disorders Caused by multiple factors Biopsychosocial approach: Includes biological, psychological, and social components Diathesis-Stress Model (Introduced in Ch 9): High up on this model= higher chance of disorder. Lower on the model= lower change of disorder AnxietyDisorders: Imagine your worse fear ever; people with thisdisorder have lotsof fearsthat are irrational. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Lots of things, big or small, cause stress Phobia: Immense fear of a specific thing Panic Disorder: Having very sudden panic attacks often, and an overwhelming amount of fear during them. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: OCD Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: PTSD. Violent episodes, etc What Causes Anxiety? Behavioral Perspective: Learned from experience. o Ex: If you have a parent that is afraid of something, you might become afraid of it too because you see them avoiding it and getting scared. Cognitive Perspective: Distorted or different ways of thinking. o Ex: Thinking something is threatening, but it really isn’t. Biomedical Perspective: High strung temperament or neurochemical imbalance Treatments for Anxiety Being exposed to fear to realize it isn’t really scary Challenging their thoughts Anti-anxiety or antidepressant meds Mood Disorders Major Depression: Irregular sleep pat, loss of appetite, not much energy(hard to get out of bed) Dysthymia: Milder form of depression, but still lasts long. Just like being sad, but for a long time Bipolar: Major depression sometimes, irrationally happy other times. (Polar opposite) Causes of Mood Disorders Biological Diathesis: Ex: Family, elevated level of neurotransmitters in brain Sociocultural Factors: Ex: Low socioeconomic status, high stress Psychological Diathesis Treatment of Mood Disorders Psychotherapy: Challenging thinking patterns or behaviors Biomedical therapy: Stabilizing the level of neurotransmitters in the brain Schizophrenia: Split from reality. Divided into positive and negative symptoms Positive Symptoms: Excess of non normal behaviors o Delusions: thinking you have super powers or that you’re being watched o Hallucinations o As you can see, positive doesn’t really mean good in this case Negative Symptoms: Absence of expected behaviors o Flat Affect: Lack of emotion o Apathy: Lack of interest o Poverty of Speech: Not talking Causes Biological Diathesis: elevated levels of neurotransmitters, exposure of influenza in utero, genetics, functional and structural brain abnormalities. Sociocultural factors If one twin has it, the other is at a higher risk of getting it, but not guaranteed because needs other factors too Treatment for Schizophrenia: Meds+ other forms of treatment (I’ll talk about in book notes) *Some illnesses are malfunction of physical body, others are malfunctions of the brain Book notes on next page!!!! Book Notes Psychological disorders can bring an irrational fear, unexplainable physical symptoms, or even detachment from reality. Makes it hard or impossible to work, learn, or love. Deviation from a social norm: Ex: criminal acts, suicide attempts Conditions not considered as psychological disorders: o Response to a certain event that is culturally expected. (Death of someone close) o Deviances- Actions of political, religious, sexual minorities o Individualistic and society conflict (Expressing individuality that may be different from society norms) Etiology: Causes/origin of something Biopsychosocial approach examples o Long history of depression in family(Bio) o Haven’t been getting enough sleep(Psycho) o Blame yourself for something that goes wrong o Living in a dangerous neighborhood because you don’t have much money, and you don’t feel safe(Social) Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM): Comprehensive classification system for psychopathologies. Many different versions. Newest version=DSM 5. Lots of improvements in this version DSM 5 is based on: o Dimensional Classifications: Symptoms of diagnosable disorder might turn into more intense forms of behavior. (Because of continuum) o Comorbidity: 2+ disorders occurring at the same time o Cultural Specific: Some disorders only exist in western cultures. Some disorders exist in other parts of the world, and not western cultures. Here, anxiety and depression might occur because of stress. In Asia, stress causes physical symptoms (like fatigue and body pain) In lifetime, about 57% of people will experience the symptoms of a psychological disorder Major Psychotherapeutic Approaches(Psychotherapy) o Humanistic: Goal is to promote natural growth and build self-acceptance by giving unconditional positive rewards and empathy o Psychodynamic: Figuring out unconscious problems from earlier years that could be the cause o Cognitive: Replacing maladaptive behaviors with positive, realistic behaviors o Behavior: Using learning techniques to directly change behavior Spontaneous Remission: Symptoms improve or go back to normal after time Meta-analysis(Definition in C1) can tell researchers the overall effect of a specific treatment Generalized Anxiety Disorder(GAD): Always uncontrollably worrying about everything. Symptoms include chronic fatigue, restlessness, muscle tension, problems sleeping, difficulty concentrating. Examples of biological diathesis(causes of some disorders): Heightened physiological arousal(rapid heart rate, dizziness, etc), high strung temperament(genetically determined), neurochemical imbalance, heredity, abnormal brain activity Cognitive Perspective: Suggests that behaviors are because of a biased way of thought. o Cognitive Restructuring: Therapy technique that gets the patient to recognize the bias thoughts and to interpret these thoughts in a more healthy way to reduce anxiety or whatever disorder they have. Major depression will usually last several months and if never been treated, comes back 80% of the time. Mania: High part of bipolar. Unrealistically happy, don’t need much sleep 2 types of bipolar o Bipolar 1: stages of mild depression and then extreme mania o Bipolar 2: Stages of major depression and then mild mania or mild happiness If one identical twin has bipolar disorder, the other has a 70% chance of getting it Examples of psychological diathesis: cognitive distortion, attributional style(how people explain their behavior and events that have happened to them) Women are more likely than men to use ruminative coping, Focusing and dwelling over something that has went wrong. Causes hopelessness and helplessness. Instead of this, men usually do something self-distracting ie drinking Cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT): says that thoughts, feelings and behaviors are interrelated Interpersonal Therapy focuses on role transition(going to college), unresolved grief, interpersonal dispute, and interpersonal deficits(like limited social skills) About 100,000 people with major depression who just can’t get rid of it will go through electroconvulsive therapy(ECT), a treatment that sends painless shock waves through the brain and causes a mini seizure. For whatever reason, 80% of users improve a lot afterwards People with schizophrenia will probably engage in grossly disorganized and bizarre behaviors Dopamine Hypothesis: Thought that schizophrenia develops in people with high dopamine activity
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