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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melina Mermigas on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HPS0612 at University of Pittsburgh taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 02/12/15
February 9 2015 Suggest that anger and impulsivity of borderline PD can be explained by abnormal development of the orbitofrontal cortex 0 So whether or not PDs are natural kinds the failings of virtue and character are typical of them and can be scientifically explained Questions raised by Pickard s essay I Are some mental illness natural kind I For that matter are physical illnesses natural kinds 0 Suppose they are not natural kinds how should they be treated or approached I Is it legitimate to use classifications or disease categories in psychiatry that are normative in character or mix together facts and values 0 Is it appropriate for a mental health workerresearcher to think of the cluster B s as involving failure of virtue and character 0 Or should we try to keep any kind of moral or normative evaluation out of psychiatric thinking and diagnosis Wachbroit normality as a biological concept I Normality is a crucial concept in understanding biological function I Arguable reference to normality required to characterize what a disease is Three concepts of normality 0 Statistical concept I Evaluative concept ethical and culture 0 Biological concept normal heart normal reaction normal environment 0 Closely linked to talk about function 0 function of the heart is to circulate blood I not a statement about all hearts not even a statement about most hearts or the average I think of a population of people who s heart does not work in a normal way I another way of saying the statistical notion does not completely capture the essence Normality in the biological sense 0 According to Wachbroit cannot use this notion of function to talk about biological normality Instead function presupposes the biological normality 0 Biological is more basic concept then use this to explain function I Have to appeal to some sort of biological normality Theories of function I Talk of function is pervasive in biology and medicine and one central issue is to understand what the notion of biological notion of function involves Theory of biological Contributing to some goal of the organism in question 0 What does he mean by goal Another theory of function I Etiological theory 0 Require reference to what is normal of they are to work 0 Function of something is that particular effect or consequence which explains WHY it is there 0 Thus the function of the heart is to circulate blood I In the case of biological function 0 Typically understood in terms of natural selection the heart is present because it has been selected for its ability to pump blood I Problem malfunctions as well as functions have evolutionary explanations 0 Can t say that the function of X because it could be a malfunction o Example sickle cell anemia February 11 2015 Anemia 0 If you have aa the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin is severally compromised so much so that this condition can be fatal 0 This is sickle cell anemia Therefor Aa is more fit than AA and aa 0 This is called heterozygous advantage because it is more fit than the homozygous people 0 Since Aa is selected for o Thinks that on etiological theories of function one would have to conclude that the hemoglobin associate with sickle cell performs a function 0 Because of this you would have to conclude that the sickle cell gene person a function I But this is contrary to how biologists would think it s a malfunction rather than function Summary 0 Id order to capture the function or malfunction distinction we need the distinction between traits that are products of evolution and confer a benefit 0 And that the benefit makes a positive contribution to reproductive success General conclusion 0 Normality is the central concept to biology separated from other sciences 0 In particular 0 Plays a role in physiological explanation General Observations about evolution 0 Is subject to some constraints 0 Mendel s laws which characterize reproduction is an example of a constraint 0 Sickle cell example revisited Given the way sexual reproduction occurs in human beings the only way you can get this is from a parent that has at least one A and one that has a 0 Given these laws you cannot avoid getting offspring that are aa 0 Also note natural selection does not always eliminate variation from populations 0 Even though Aa is the fittest genotype natural selection cannot produce a population that consists of only Aa genotypes Operation of natural selection requires 0 Variation 0 Heritable traits Responsible for fitness differences Original source of the variation is conceived to be completely random Natural selection tinkerer 0 Works with the materials it has available 0 Often these are constrained in ways that prevent natural selection from finding the solution that might seem most optimal in abstract
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