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Chapter 10 Romanesque Lecture Notes Week 13

by: Joanna Nawn

Chapter 10 Romanesque Lecture Notes Week 13 Art H 111

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These notes cover all of the lectures from chapter 10 Romanesque.
Ancient through medieval art
Dr. Bruhn
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joanna Nawn on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Art H 111 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Bruhn in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Ancient through medieval art in Art at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 04/16/16
Chapter 10 Lecture Notes Tournus and Pilgrimage Lecture Southern Style- St. Vincenc in Cardona st  An example of 1 Romanesque architecture  Stone vaulted masonry churches  These types of churches are fireproof and help with acoustics  Compact and simple in design  Interiors are vaulted  The X’s on the plan show groin vaults in the aisles  The dotted lines in between the piers are transverse arches that separate bays in the nave  The nave at St. Vencenc is covered in a barrel vault  Pilaster strips- a pilaster without a capital and associated with Lombard bands o Can be used to thicken a wall at a point that needs support  Lombard bands- a series of two or more blind arches supported by corbels  Corbels- wedge shaped supports  The nave is vertical meeting in the middle to create a transverse arch  Brick-based masonry- small stones the size of bricks placed evenly  Small windows  Vertical articulation Southern tradition:  Brick-based masonry  Vertical articulation  Pilaster strips  Lombard bands  Barrel-vaulted interior  Small windows Northern Style- St. Cyriakus in Gernrode  Example of the northern style  Frame-and-fill masonry- corners and framing elements (arches over windows) are outlined/framed in finely cut ashlar stones laid in regular courses. Everything in between is irregular  Interior has an alternation of support with the columns and piers  Piers divide the nave into two parts that are about the same size as the crossing of the church  Additional piers on the gallery level divide the arcades  Horizontal articulation  Large windows in the clearstory are possible because there is no need to support a heavy barrel vault  Timber ceiling  In the arcade and gallery you can see elements of the frame-and- fill masonry o Frame elements are clear o Fill elements are plastered over  Less compact plan and elements extend outward from the center of the church Northern tradition:  Frame-and-fill masonry  Horizontal articulation  Alternation of support  Timber ceiling  Larger windows St. Philibert in Tournus  Combines the southern and northern styles of 1 Romanesque (pre-Romanesque) architecture  Narthex was built in the southern style o Made up of brick-based masonry o Has wide pilaster strips and long Lombard bands o The interior consists of two stories like a westwork and each story is vaulted  Choir was built in the northern style o More complicated o Use of frame-and-fill masonry  Nave was built in both styles o The southern tradition used brick-based masonry in the round piers and the emphasis on vertical articulation. Transverse arches divide the bays a part o The northern tradition used frame-and-fill masonry on the nave wall, arches above the aisles and on the transverse arches. Also used larger windows at the clearstory level o The nave was not covered with a barrel-vault, instead vaulted each bay of the nave with a transverse barrel vault that runs perpendicular to the nave  The transverse barrel vaults are unique to this site Pilgrimage to Santiago  One of the most important pilgrimage sites in medieval Europe  Pilgrims still go there to venerate the relics of Saint James the Great o An apostle of Christ who was believed to have converted people of the Liberian peninsula to Christianity  Santiago is Spanish for saint James  The goal of a pilgrim was to visit a holy place to venerate the relics of a saint  With Muslim expansion it was almost impossible for Romanesque pilgrims to reach Jerusalem, making Santiago de Compostela popular Relics  People believed that getting close to relics gave them contact with the holy  Bones of saints were important because they were the saints physical remains  Objects associated with saints were of less value but still important Reliquary  Small wooden box covered in ivory veneer  From the church of saint Ursula in Cologne  Stuffed with tiny bundles some probably hold bones  Bust reliquary- a reliquary shaped like the head and shoulders of a saint St. Foy Reliquary  Arinisdus- took the relics during a feast day procession  Core of the figure is made of wood  Many of the decorations are spolia  All of the items decorating the reliquary were seen as evidence of her miracles to pilgrims Pilgrimage Roads church  Are all designed to allow access to the relics  They are all made very similarly except for the size of the church and how many chapels it had Santiago De Compostela Church  Still has its original Romanesque core but the rest was added on to over the centuries  An international style of Romanesque architecture  Churches on the road to the pilgrimage churches were made to house pilgrims and had identical plans to the church they were on route to see  The plan is based on a basilica with a nave, crossing and projecting transept arms  The apse was extended to become a large choir area  The ambulatory is surrounded by radiating chapels each one containing reliquaries for pilgrims to visit  Additional chapels are on the transept arms which also contained reliquaries  The nave and transept are covered in a barrel vault and buttressed on either side by quadrant vaults in the galleries  Quadrant vaults- half arches turned into vaults o They concentrate the pressure from the barrel vaults downward o It makes so that there is no clearstory in the nave or transept making these areas of the church dark  Has vertical and horizontal articulations Romanesque Sculpture and Painting Lecture  All of the sculpted images in this lecture were sculpted by Gislebertus Reliefs at the Cloister at Santo Domingo de Silos  Located on the piers inner faces  Depict events from the gospels and the book of acts  All of the reliefs are thematically linked to the life and passion of Christ  Christ is shown as a medieval pilgrim on his way to Santiago de Compostela  Figures look like they are floating Parts of a Romanesque Portal  Most are accessed by two doors separated by a post called a trumeau o The trumeau is often decorated with sculpture  Above the trumeau is the lintel  Above the lintel is the tympanum- a semi-circular arch over the doorway  The tympanum is typically surrounded by sculpted voussoirs  The jambs also contain sculpture Iconography of the portal at Moissac  The sculptural program extends outward onto the porch on either side  This portal has several distinctive features: o The lintel rosettes o The cross lions decorating the front of the trumeau o On the tympanum Christ has a distinctive pose  Depicts passages 4 and 5 from the book of revelation  Christ is at the center of the tympanum surrounded by 4 beasts and the 24 elders who cast their crowns to the lord  The trympanum detail shows twisting forms in the eagle and ox  Each of the 24 elders has a different pose  In the jambs and trumeau are saints Peter and Paul with the prophets Jeremiah and Isaiah  One of the characteristics of Romanesque architectural sculpture is the way that individual elements are stretched and turned in order to fit them into the spaces that are available o Jeremiah is one of the best examples of this Typical elements found on a Last Judgement Portal  Features Christ in a mandorla at the center surrounded by angels and saints  Below the dead rise from their graves o They are sorted into those who will go to heaven and those going to hell  Heaven is full of happy people and hell is full of tortures  Last judgment scenes have a clear separation between Christ’s right (our left) the blessed and Christ’s left (our right) the damned  Some include people, place and incidents that are local Last Judgement Tympanum Portal at St. Foy  An angel and devil are deciding who is going to heaven and hell  Below them the blessed are welcomed into heaven and the damned are shoved into the mouth of a beast at the gates of hell  This one includes people, place and incidents that are local  Closest to Christ is the virgin Mary, then saint Peter and the hermit who founded the monastery  Behind the hermit is the abbot of Conk leading a crowned figure by the hand (Charlemagne who gave land to the monastery)  Behind Charlemagne are individuals who gave donations to the church ending with Arinisdus (the monk who stole saint Foy’s relics from another church)  At the feet of these figures is a small representation of the sanctuary of the church and in front of it is a representation of saint Foy (a kneeling figure with the hand of god reaching out towards her)  Below that are the blessed in heaven Portal at San Lesar in Autun  The trumeau is a later addition from the gothic period  Gislebertus signed his name directly under Christ’s feet  It is a last judgment tympanum  There is an angel below the signed inscription from Gislebertus who divides up who is going to heaven and hell o He put his signature on the heaven side  Christ is in a mandorla in the center surrounded by angels  In the lintel below are the dead rising from their graves and being separated by an angel beneath Christ’s feet  On Christ’s right (our left) is Mary enthroned and next to her is an angel blowing a trumpet to wake the dead  The last judgment scene has been carried out on to the arch molds  The inner arch mold has a vine scroll and the outer arch mold is carved with roundels representing signs of the zodiac and the labors of the months  Close to Christ is the apostles with Peter turned away to greet those coming into heaven  2 of the dead on the heaven side carry croziers  Crosier- a staff that resembles a shepherd’s crook and a symbol of the office of bishop  One of the most famous images from Autun is the figure being grabbed by its head and pulled out of his grave on the hell side  Above him is the weighing of the souls with the archangel Michael on one side and two devils on the other side  At the top saints James and John watch over the proceedings Gislebertus’ style  Exaggerated gestures  Long stretched figures  Portrays the emotions of all the figures in the composition Eve Lintel  Seductive  Part of a now destroyed lintel that once had both Adam and Eve  Her pubic area is hidden from view drawing our eyes to it Historiated Capital  Means that the capitals are carved with relief imagery  Have forms based on classical capitals  Shows the suicide of Judas  Took 30 pieces of silver in return for pointing out Jesus to the Roman soldiers  He tried to give the money back the next morning but was refused  He threw it into the temple and then hung himself  Gislebertus shows Judas plagued by the demons of his own guilt assisting in his suicide  This capital is based off of a Corinthian capital with curling acanthus leaves at the corners  The acanthus tree in the center is a part of the suicide Paintings at Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe  The church has a tall barrel-vaulted nave covered in 4 painted biblical registers o Two on either side of the vault separated by a painted band that resembles a marble beam o 50 scenes from genesis and exodus including the creation of the earth, Adam and Eve, and Noah’s arch  The nave is supported by columns that are painted to look like expensive marble  The western entrance has a painted scene of the apocalypse  The choir is decorated with the passion and resurrection of Christ  The crypt is painted with scenes of the martyrdom of saints  The paintings showed biblical and historical events together  Scale is inconsistent because clarity and readability are more important Wiligelmus’ Frieze  4 scenes of genesis placed across the façade at Modena  Scholars believe that they were originally placed all at the same low level so that they were visible to people entering the church  The top scene is the creation of Adam and Eve and the temptation o Shows four different episodes within the image in high relief o The panels are spolia from older monuments which were flipped to the unused side to carve the images o The first episode panel shows Christ in a mandorla indicating that he is both Christ and god the father o The next scene is Adam being brought to life o The third panel shows the creation of Eve  There are inscriptions to identify all of the figures in the scene o The last panel shows the temptation and the original sin  The second scene is the expulsion of Adam and Eve and their labors in the harsh world  The third shows the story of Cane and Abel with their sacrifices to the lord along with Cane murdering Abel  The Fourth scene shows Noah’s arch  All four scenes take place within a blind arcade  The scenes were originally painted and some of the red still remains  Wiligelmus’ figures are more blocky and used a drill to make deep contrasts Romanesque Italy, Germany, and Spain Lecture Cathedral of Pisa  The cathedral complex included a cathedral, a separate baptistery, a bell tower (campanile) which is the tower of pisa, and a campo santo a building laid out like a classical atrium o Campo santo means sacred ground o The campo santo was used as a covered cemetery  The cathedral was made by master Cosetos  It is based on a cruciform basilica with a central dome  Each of the transept arms has aisles and ends in an apse  It has double side aisles on both sides of the nave  Interior is like an early Christian basilica but the exterior is very different  The interior and exterior are decorated with marble veneer, much of the marble was spolia from older monuments Cathedral of San Celemente  Most of the interior is Romanesque except for the ceiling and nave wall above the arcade  The classical ionic columns are spolia in the nave arcade and so are the mosaic decoration in the apse o They recall the early Christian art  The separation of the nave into bays with the use of rectangular piers alternating with sets of four columns in the arcade is a Romanesque characteristic  The frescos on the curving wall of the apse are Romanesque  The floor has cosmani work  Apse mosaics is dependent on early Christian art o The 12 sheep are early Christian o The vine scroll underneath the cross is also early Christian  It is a crucifixion scene with the cross decorated by 12 doves representing the 12 apostles are also early Christian  The elongated figures of Mary and John are Romanesque  The depiction of Christ is Romanesque due is the image showing him as suffering and dying Rib Vaults at Sant’Ambrogio in Milan  The monument is preceded by a colonnaded atrium  The exterior has pilaster strips to give vertical articulation  There are also Lombard bands at the top of the first story and along the façade st  This monument contains elements from the 1 Romanesque with new elements  The nave contains three square bays called double bays o Each bay corresponds with 2 bays in the side aisles o Large piers mark the separation between the nave bays o The smaller piers mark the separation between the aisle bays  This monuments uses a new type of vault- a ribbed groin vault to cover the square bays of the nave  Groin vault- is formed by the intersection of two barrel vaults at right angles  Rib vault- the groins formed by the intersection of the two vaults are marked by masonry ribs  The piers have pilaster strips and engaged columns that correspond with the ribs and transverse arches in each bay o This is so that each element starts at the floor level and followed through to the other side of the nave Cathedral of Speyer st  The exterior has some elements of the southern style from the 1 Romanesque o Pilaster strips and Lombard bands  Also has elements of the northern style due to the complex plan with a projecting transept and an apse that extends outward o Also originally built with a timber roof and then vaulted later  The church was damaged during WWII and most of it is a modern reconstruction  The crypt is original and is beneath the eastern apse  There is an alternation of support between heavy and light compound piers comes from the northern style  The heavy piers carry the weight of the groin vaults  The nave was covered in square groin vaults that covered double bays  The aisles are also groin vaulted  The builders achieved high, light and vaulting by utilizing groin vaults, which allowed the vaults to be supported on the four corners of the bay Hildegard of Bingen  Hildegard was a female mystic  St. Hildegard was the founder and first abbess of the Benedictine convent in Bingen Hildegard of Bingen’s Scivias  Took 10 years to write with the assistance of a monk from Disibodenberg and a nun  The book received papal approval  The paintings were expensive to produce Rupertsberg Manuscript copy from Scivias  Shows Hildegard receiving her visions  She records the visions with a stylus on wax tablets  The monk next to her records what she is saying  The architecture represents the convent  The awkward poses indicate that the painter might not have been trained Vision Three from Scivias  Hildegard’s vision of the universe  Every chapter opens with a picture of the vision and then interpreted with text  This vision as Hildegard says is a physical manifestation of the invisible and the eternal  She says that the universe is shaped like an egg representing the state of humanity  The egg’s fattest point is humanities greatest hour  The narrow ends represent the state of humanity at the beginning and end of time  The bright flames surrounding the egg on all sides are the purifying fire of gods salvation lighting up the darkness around them  The three torches at the top of the image are a representation of the holy trinity  The sun below them represents the unified god  The movement of the sun takes place in response to the situation of humanity  The whirlwinds represent god too  The fire, thunder and sharp stones represent hell  The watery air and white zone represent the waters of baptism and the salvation that can come from hearing the word of the lord through preaching Renier de Huy’s Baptismal font in Liege, Belgium  Is a lost wax casting in bronze  The figures are expressive and naturalistic  The font is carried on the backs of 12 individually cast oxen  The font represents the theme of baptism with 5 scenes that progress in chronological order around the sides of the font  The first scene is of John the Baptist preaching to the public  The second scene is John baptizing new converts  The third scene shows John baptizing Christ  This is followed by 2 scenes of Christ’s followers baptizing new converted Christians o St. John baptizes the Greek philosopher Crato Catalunyan artists in Spain  Combines mozarabic, byzantine and classical art styles Apse Fresco  Combines elements from the book of revelation and the prophecies from Isaiah and Ezekiel  Christ is in the center in a mandorla with the alpha and omega (signifying the beginning and end) o His pose recalls that of Byzantine art  Four angels flank the mandorla each one holding an evangelist symbol  Down below in the central window of the apse are the virgin Mary and 6 of the apostles each one labeled with an inscription over their head  The faces recall the mozarabic style  Modeling of drapery is in the byzantine tradition Majestat Batllo Crucifix  Majestat- are large wooden crucifixes that are painted are carved showing Christ in a long sleeved robe that reaches to his ankles  It is a type of crucifix made in Catalonia  Majestat’s show Christ as still living and indifferent to the suffering of the crucifixion  The artist used red, blue and white paints to simulate expensive imported oriental silk in Christ’s garment Anglo-Norman Art Lecture Bayeux Tapestry  A work of embroidery not a tapestry  It was done in wool yarn on linen  Consists of a continuous narrative leading up to the Norman invasion, the invasion and the death of king Harold  Crucial scenes in the tapestry are Harold swearing an oath of fealty to Duke William of Normandy, death of the English king Edward, Harold’s coronation as king and William’s preparations for war, the Norman invasion of England and the death of Harold  Argument over who did the embroidery  Consists of three registers: a main narrative band with upper and lower borders o The upper register sometimes contains portions of the main narrative and sometimes decorated with diagonal colored bands alternating with plant, animal, and bird forms o The lower register alternates with the same decorative elements of diagonal bands alternating with plants, animals and birds; but adds other elements that add to the narrative  The clarity of the narrative is the most important factor in the images  There are 50 surviving scenes  First crucial scene shows Harold on the right swearing fealty to Duke William of Normandy o William is shown enthroned with a sword o Harold is swearing an oath on the saints relics o There is a Latin inscription to explain the narrative  Another scene shows Hailey’s comet passing and being witnessed by the Anglo-Saxons one of them informs Harold who has recently been crowned king o The inscription reads these men marvel at the star o The comet was seen as a sign of great things to come and as a sign of the coming invasion o The architectural elements are shown as cut away architectural settings and exterior views o Figures are elongated  After landing the Normans fortified their position creating a motte-and-bailey castle  The battle followed shortly afterward o The narrative has been carried into the lower register  The end of the tapestry shows the death of Harold o He is identified by the inscription above him o Below the dying Harold is a man stripping a corpse of its chainmail  The tapestry also contains scenes that comment on the narrative o Shows Harold at the palace of Duke William in France before the battle o The nude male in the lower register hints to a sex scandal that took place between the lady and the cleric  Bishop Otto of Bayeux is the likely patron of the tapestry  Bishop Otto is featured in a scene blessing a meal that takes place after the Norman’s landed, but before the battle o It is the only image from this time period on outdoor dining o It is very important to scholars o Birds are roasted on skewers on an outdoor grill o The bishop is shown twice which supports the idea that he was the patron of the tapestry o The bishop at the scene of the table is given a placement very similar to that of Christ in depictions of the last supper  This work is not a tapestry due to the fact that tapestries have the design woven into the fabric  Two types of embroidery stitch were used stem stitching and the other effect was laid and couch work  Stem stitching- is a quick overlapping single stitch done for outlines frequently done in a contrasting color for effect  Laid and couch work- is long stitches were laid in one direction to quickly fill in the color and then secured by using crosswise stitches and finally tiny couching stitches Durham Cathedral  Was planned from the start to be a vaulted church  Was also built in one long campaign of 46 years of construction  The nave consists of 3 double bays each one covered with a 7 part vault  It is a rib-vaulted church  You count the areas of webbing between the ribs to determine the number of parts in the vault  Each one of the nave bays corresponds with 2 bays in the aisles, which is why the nave bays are referred to as double bays  Each bay is separated from the next by a transverse arch  It had a simple basilica layout with a projecting transept that had aisles on the eastern sides of the transept arms and 3 apses on the eastern end  The nave has round piers that alternate with compound piers in the nave arcade  The compound piers carry the transverse arches that separate each one of the double bays of the nave  The incised lines in the piers are distinctive with zigzag, chevrons or checker board patterns  The arches have an additional zigzag molding, which a characteristic of Norman architecture in England  The nave walls have horizontal and vertical articulation  The primary vertical articulation is in the compound piers separating the bays from one another o They have continuous articulation from the floor through the transverse arch  The horizontal articulation is a continuous strip molding running along the base of the gallery level leading your eye down the length of the nave  Some advances made for great height, light and vaulting o The double bays of the nave are supported by their springing, that is where they begin to curve by a buttress that is built into the gallery level and is hidden beneath the gallery roof Saint Etienne at Cean  A Benedictine abbey church built by William the conqueror while he was still Duke of Normandy  William has buried here  The original church had a timber roof  The aisles were originally covered in groin vaults over square bays  The gallery is covered in quadrant vaults  Compound piers on the nave wall give continuous vertical articulation  The timber roof was replaced with 6 part vaults  Each one of the 6 part vaults covers a bay o You can count these 6 parts by counting the areas of webbing in between the ribs and transverse arches that separate each bay from the next  There is an addition of a rib that cuts across the center of the square bay o This rib springs from the top of a heavy pier in the nave wall  The addition of 6 part vaults meant that the windows of the clearstory had to be altered o The original triple arcade in front of the clearstory was modified into an arcade consisting of two arches of unequal height  Has a twin towered westwork with vertical wall buttresses that divide the façade into three sections that correspond with the nave and the side aisles  The façade is also divided up into three stories horizontally by the use of narrow string courses which reflect the elevation of the nave wall with the arcade level, the gallery level and the clearstory Motte-and-Bailey Castle  Simple to build but effective for controlling newly conquered territory  Construction required only unskilled laborers and cut timber  Consists of a motte and keep  Motte- raised mound of earth that it crowned by a palisade wall and a tower (keep) at its very center  It wasn’t possible to enclose a large number of people within the protections of a motte most of these had an accompanying bailey  Bailey- housed the defensive garrison, livestock, etc.  Daily life took place within the bailey  Most were made of earth fortifications and wooden walls and palisade, but stone fortification were eventually built at these sites Dover Castle  The largest castle in England  Had a multi story square keep built of stone at its center  Located on top of the cliffs of Dover  It was once occupied by the Roman’s due to the lighthouse on its site  Next to the lighthouse is a chapel that was once part of an Anglo- Saxon castle  William the conqueror took this castle during the Norman invasion and improved its fortifications o He put his half-brother Bishop Otto of Bayeux in charge of the castle along with Hue de Monfor  The defensive wall around the square keep’s design is evolved from the motte-and-bailey castle, but on a larger scale o The simple circular palisade has become a semi-circular wall punctuated by rectangular towers and 2 towered gates o The wall encloses a new type of bailey, one that surrounds the keep rather than being separate from it o This bailey houses barns, workshops, housing for the troops and a residence for the lord o The keep is large enough to hold a defensive force comfortably during a long siege o The keep has its own defensive towers on the sides and corners  Edward I added outer circular walls to the castle th th  In the 17 and 18 century additional defenses were built  During WWII it was the site of an underground base for the British Chronicles  Many chronicles were made during this time period were medieval historians attempted to present year by year history often beginning with the birth of Christ or another important biblical event like the great flood in the old testament  The major events of each year were presented which included miracles, plagues, scandals, the election of a new pope, etc.  As the narrative got closer to the time of the chronicler entries would get longer and with more detail  Some chronicles were made over the lifetimes of many chroniclers  Not all medieval chronicles contained illustrations, but many of the later chronicles were very well illustrated Worcester Chronicle  Contains text and illustration by John who was a monk of Worceste  The Worcester chronicle is the earliest known illustrated record of contemporary events in England  In the two pages shown depicts the nightmares of king Henry I  Took place during a three night period  The king was confronted by three groups of people demanding tax relief  The peasant farmers (those who work), soldiers (those who fight), and churchmen (those who pray)  These show the three levels of society in Europe particularly in France and England  The final scene the king was caught in storm at sea promises tax relief Hell Mouth Scene in the Winchester Psalter  Depicts the mouth of hell being locked up by the archangel Michael  The mouth is full of twisting bodies of both the damned and the demons who torture them  The damned include people from all walks of life including crowned royalty  The hell mouth is framed by two beast heads  The jaws of the beasts end in additional fanged beasts and chains of biting animals  The border has stylized acanthus leaves Cluny and Citeaux Lecture Cluniac Order  The life of a monk was dedicated to elaborate celebrations of the liturgy with chance and group prayers filling nearly the entire day  Monks spent very little time in contemplation, meditation, or solitary prayer  This order concentrated primarily on worship, had little time for reading the scriptures and physical labor was done by servants  They wore black Monastery of Cluny  The largest monastery ever built in the west  The monastery was subject only to the pope in Rome immune from local authority  Operated almost without anyone to answer to since Rome was so far away  Later Cluny controlled over 1500 monasteries  Nearly all cluniac monasteries were dedicated to saint Peter  A rapid expansion of the monastery took place and that is when Cluny III church was built  There were rooms set aside for guests and workshops to create works of art Construction of Cluny III  Built into an already complex monastery complex  The dying monk Gonzo was shown the plan for the new church by saints  A hugely expensive project to build draining the finances of Cluny  Construction took over 30 years  Once the choir was built the old Cluny II church was mostly dismantled and made part of an enlarged cloister  It was dedicated to saint Peter  Designed with double side aisles and a projecting transept  It had a huge choir and radiating chapels  During the French Revolution the building suffered and was used as a stone quarry afterward  Only the south side of the smaller transept still stands today  What is left of the nave is a few compound pier bases  The problem of light, height and vaulting was fixed due to  The nave was covered in a barrel vault made with a pointed arch which acted to better concentrate the forces of the barrel vault downwards rather than outwards o The barrel vault was not buttressed at its springing  The nave wall was opened up to allow for enormous windows in the clearstory o The nave wall despite its thickness was weakened by the presence of so many large windows  Shortly after it was constructed the nave vault collapsed and had to be redone  The crown of the vault was extremely high  The ribbed vault is the second vault built, not the original  The church had a three part elevation consisting of a high nave arcade, a blind arcade with pilasters and a large clearstory with three windows  The southeast transept that still stands has Roman architectural elements o The arches are separated by fluted pilasters toped by Corinthian capitals o The horizontal stringing course passes over the vertical engaged column rather than behind it  One of the capitals that once decorated the choir still stands today o It shows the 4 rivers of paradise o It is a historiated capital carved in the form of a Corinthian capital  A smaller copy of the church was made at Paray-le-Monial giving scholars a better idea of what Cluny III was like before its destruction o It has a similar plan but has a single rather than double side aisle o It has a pointed barrel vault and large clearstory like Cluny III o This church used fluted pilasters and round engaged columns in the nave piers o There were also horizontal string courses that pass in front of the vertical elements of the wall articulation Cistercian order  Begun when a Benedictine monk named Robert left his monastery with 7 other monks and went to isolated forest of Molem where they began a new reformed monastery  22 years later they decided that Molem was not isolated enough so they fled again this time to the marshes of Citeaux  Citeaux is the mother house of the Cistercian order  They drew up rules of the order that were approved by the pope  This order wanted to eliminate every luxury or indulgence that was not specifically mentioned in the rule of saint Benedict  They wanted to get back to the basics of monastic life which were worship, reading the scriptures, and physical labor  To differentiate themselves they wore white while all other orders wore black  Their monasteries were in places that were seen as undesirable and secluded  The only requirement when building a new Cistercian monastery other than isolation was the presence of water in order to make it functional for people to live  They lived a hard life with lots of physical labor and inadequate nutrition, rarely eating meat  The average life expectancy for a Cistercian monk was 28 years  Due to the fact that they were such good laborers, their monasteries tended to become very rich and powerful over the years  In rocky areas monks raised sheep and ended up dominating the market in parchment  They attracted a great deal of patronage receiving lands, goods and money from people who wanted to be remembered in the monks prayers Abbey of Fontinay  Small and compact  Simple plan with a squared off apse and small square chapels in the transept arms  All of the facilities are modest  A fountain is an important feature in every Cistercian monastery o Cleanliness particularly before meals was considered very important o The fountain is placed just across the cloister from the refectory (dining area)  They reject too much ornamentation of their buildings and stripped them down to the bare essentials  Stained glass was forbidden as well as architectural sculpture and painted decoration  Church towers were forbidden  The only sculpture that could be displayed was a single image of the Madonna and child  Processional crosses had to be only made of painted wood  The vessels for the Eucharist could only be made of unornamented silver, no gilding was allowed  Cistercian decoration when present is very spare and elegant  On the interior each bay of the side aisles is vaulted with a pointed transverse barrel vault  There is no clearstory in the church  There are windows on the side aisles to bring in light as well as in the apse to draw your eye to the most important part of the church  The nave arcade is carried on compound piers that are made up of pilasters and engaged columns  Above the springing of the nave arcade, the transverse arches of the nave are carried on single engaged columns  The church uses pointed arches and pointed barrel vaults throughout  All of the churches have night stairs Cistercian attitude towards art and architecture  They struggled with art during their time  Cistercian glass- the artist worked in clear white and gray glass employing geometric patterns creating windows that are elegantly simple  This order shows how artistic excellence can come from limitation Wooden Madonna and Child  Maybe not be made by a Cistercian, but would have been accepted by them  Image of the Christ child seated in the virgins lap are called a throne of wise  Mary serves as Christ’s throne with Christ possessing wisdom and justice  The Christ child would have held a bible Cistercian Manuscript Illumination  Both examples are a commentary on the book of Job illuminated th at Citeaux in the 12 century Laborers Manuscript Image  A monk and possibly a novice are cutting down a tree  In the initial on the right two monks are splitting a log o The reason they aren’t wearing white colored robes is because the rule for white colored robes might not have been written yet  No gilding was used to ornament the page  Both images show depicts of daily monastic life with the monks engaged in hard labor Virgin Holding Christ Child Manuscript Image  Shows Mary holding the Christ child and the tree of Jesse  The tree of Jesse refers to a passage in Isaiah that is an allegory for Christ’s family tree growing out of the family of Jesse  A dove symbolizing the holy spirit perches on the virgin’s halo as a reminder of the annunciation and the immaculate conception  Angels on both sides present Mary with a building representing the church and a crown representing Mary as queen of heaven  Mary wears a tremendous amount of drapery  Her pose with the Christ child on her cheek recall icons from the Byzantine style  The artist drew the scene and then painted it with little color and shows richness without luxurious materials


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