Intro to Social Psych Notes
Intro to Social Psych Notes PSYC 3430 - 03
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3430 - 03 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
Social psych and the law The risk of false confession • Project nnocence is an organization that works to free wrongfully convicted indivudals • Among prisoners convicted and later proved innocent by DNA evidence, what percetnage do you think had given false confessions? ◦ 20-25% • Sometimes ppl confess as an act of compliance • Sometimes ppl are conviced that they actually committed the crime; private acceptance ◦ Suspects who lack a clear memory of the event ◦ When false evidence is presented • Pp chart ◦ No one actually pushed the button they weren't supposed to touch ◦ When there's a false witness, numbers are highest, especially when the person is doing it fast The lie detector test • Many ppl confess after being otld they have failed a polygraph • The assumption: when ppl lie, become anxious in ways that can b measured • 80-90% accurate • Truthful ppl can fail • The test can be faked Eyewitnesses are powerful (loftus 1974) • Pp chart • Discredited eyewitness and eyewitness had equal power How accurate is eyewitness testimony • Buckhout (1974) study of accuracy: ◦ An assault on a professor was staged ◦ 7 weeks later, 60% of witnesses identiﬁed the wrong person • Eyewitnesses are often more conﬁdent than correct Why is eyewitness memory faulty? • The misinformation effect - incorporating "misinformation" into one's memory of an even after receiving misleading info • Memory constructioni (loftus 78) ◦ Ps show series of slides • Pic of blue car at a stop sign or a yield • Do ppl have an accurate memory for seeing stop or yield? • Misleading questions • Identiﬁed which slide they saw • 59% asked misleading question answered wrong • Retelling events commits people to their memory • Feedback to witnesses increases conﬁdence What can be done to reduce error? • Train police interviewers ◦ Don’t interrupt witness ◦ Have witness visualize the scene ◦ Don’t allow leading questions • Minimize false lineup identﬁcaitons ◦ Accurate identiﬁcations are automatic and effortless ◦ Screen out ppl who make false IDs ◦ Ppl do best looking at pics one at a time What other factors inﬂuence juror judgements? • The defendant's characteristics ◦ Physical attractivness ◦ Similarity to jurors ◦ Race/ethnicity ◦ Ppl are more likely to recommend ablack person for death penality • Phenotypical characteristics - most likely • The judge's instructions ◦ Difﬁcult for jurors to ignore inadmissible evidence What inﬂuences the individual juror? • Juror comprehension ◦ Understanding instructions ◦ Understanding statistical info • Expert testimonies ◦ Increasing juror's understanding Scientiﬁc jury selection • Preimptery challenge - attornies can say they don’t want a certain perosn on the jury • A method of selecting juries thorugh surveys that yield correlations bt demographics and trial relevant attitudes • The case against the Harrisburg Seven (73) ◦ Stron gevidence ◦ Trial in a conservative city ◦ A sociologist surveyed community • Demogrphic varibles • Attitudes ◦ Trial ended in a hung jury Death qualiﬁcaiton • A jury selection procedure sued in capital cases that permits judges to exclude prospective jurors who say they would not vote for the death penality • Death penalty supporters ◦ More concerned about crim ◦ Trustful of police ◦ More cynical of defense lawyers ◦ Less tolerant of procedures to protect the accused • Capital case- case where defednent is eligible for death penality if found guilty; can exclude ppl on jury if they wouldn’t want to decide • Death qualiﬁed jurors more likely to vote guilty • Death qualiﬁcation qustions can impact juries • Mock juries ◦ Askign perspective jurors death qualiﬁcation questions makes them more likely to vote quilty The death penality and jsutice • Public attitudes support the prevailing practice ◦ In us, most support it ◦ In ocuntries where it is banned, most oppose it • Death penalty is applied inconsistently Juries and gorup inﬂuence • Minority inﬂuence ◦ Rare ◦ Must be consistnet, eprsisten, and self conﬁdent ◦ High status male jurors tend to be inﬂuential • Group polarization • Leniency bias ◦ Juries are more likely to air on leniency • Don’t have to have 12 ppl on juries • More likely to have dissent in 12 person juries • Smaller juries less likely to represent minority segments of the pop • Smaller are moere likely to reach a unanimous verdict Less than unanimous juries • Supreme court has upheald less than un decisions • Mock jury study (hastie 98) ◦ Juries t ◦ PP Effects of crowding Crowding and perceived control • Get ppl to solve puzzles in different environments • It can effect our cog abilites, motivation and persistence • Tried to solve most puzzles when not crowded at all • Percieved control - reminded they could leave room at any time Noise as a stressor • Stressful when we feel we cant control the noise or make it stop • Looked at percentage of errors in problem solving • No one actually pressed the button but had knowledge that if they did itd go away Opinions on climate science • What percentage of climate scientists thinking global warming is caused by humans? ◦ 97% • What % of americans? ◦ 52% ◦ These differ from textbook Overshooting the earth carrying capacity • Ppl make more money they buy more stuff - consumption • Consumption contributes to global warming Enabling sustainable lifestyles • Providing women with education reduces number of babies they have How can we get people to reduce consumption? • Conserving water (dickerson 92) ◦ Manipulation • Questionnaire about own water use • Asked to sign poster advocating conservation • Hypocrisy condition: ▪ ? + poster ▪ Creates cognitive dissonance ◦ Ppl in hypocrisy saved most water Wealth and well being • Does economic growth improve human morale ◦ No relation Why does materialism fail to satisfy? • Doesn't make you happier in long run • Adaptation level phenomenon - Can apply to temp in room not just money Satisfaction with life and adaption (brickman 78) • Difference bt a winner and non winner wasn’t signiﬁcant Social psych and reduced consumption • Downward social comparison study ◦ I wish - upward; not as happy ◦ Im glad im not - downward; happier