PSYC 333 Week 3 notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cody Moore on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 333 at Kansas taught by Christopher Cushing in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychlogy at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/12/15
PSYC 333 Week 3 Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth cont February 10 2015 Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale 2436 hours after birth Neurological development Reflexes Reactions to people Ratings of worrisome normal or superior Testing for disease Chapter 4 Infancy February 10 2015 Birth complications Preterm 0 2237 weeks 0 Immature lungs digestive immune systems Low birth weight LBW 0 Low less than 5 lbs 8 oz 0 Very low less than 3 lbs 5 oz 0 Extremely low less than 2 lbs 3 oz 0 Intrauterine growth restrictions Small for gestational age SGA 0 Not the same as low birth weight Causes of LBWSGA o Placenta problems 0 Malnutrition o Tobaccodrug use 0 Multiple Anoxia 0 Baby gets airway cut off Umbilical cord becomes tangled Breeched Placenta separation Can cause permanent neurological damage Increased risk of heart disease OOOOO Shortterm complications of LBW 4050 weighing less then 22 pounds die Brain development and neural pattern formation in preterm infants differs Breathing difficulty due to lack of surfacing or respiratory distress syndrome Spend time in isolettes Longterm complications of LBW Depends on postnatal environment 0 Stimulating home can lead to very good outcomes 0 Less stable home or being economically disadvantaged Interventions for preterm infants Early acquaintance programs touching rocking talking are all developmentally beneficial Parents can be taught how to be sensitive and responsive to preterm infants PSYC 333 Week 3 Interventions for preterm infants cont Combined with stimulating day care programs help improves cognitive growth and reduces behavioral disturbances Helping to manage a parent s own mental health Labor and delivery medication 95 of mothers use some type of medication Reduce pain induce contractions Pitocin oxytocin or relax mother Can reduce the ability to push effectively Can make babies lethargic and inattentive Appropriate doses can increase comfort without disrupting delivery 0000 Psychological environment of childbirth Mother s experience 0 First 612 hours sensitive period for emotional bonding may not be essential o Maternity blues 4060 of mothers 0 Postpartum depression 10 of mothers Should seek professional help serious clinical disorder Symptoms mirror major depressive disorder Depression affects outcomes of both mother and infant Father s experience 0 Engrossment intense fascination desire to touch hold and caress 0 Early contact with newborn can make father feel closer to partner positive support for mother February 12 2015 The infant s sensationperception The method of evoked potentials 0 Present a stimulus and record brain waves The highamplitude sucking method 0 Rate of sucking a pacifier when presented a stimulus Infant sensory capabilities 0 Hearing 0 Discriminate sounds based on loudness duration direction and frequency 0 Prefer mother s voice to other women s Appears to be present in utero 0 At 36 months sensitive to phonemes even better than adults If sounds are not part of the adult s spoken language 0 Hearing loss can adversely affect development Often due to ear infections Taste and smell 0 Prefer sweet over sour bitter or salty o If breast fed they recognize their mother by smell 0 Prefer to avoid noxious odors Touch temperature and pain 0 Touch enhances development allows exploration of environment 0 Sensitive to temperature 0 Sensitive to pain ELM 0 Limited acuity 0 20600 vision 0 Explains why infants prefer high contrast patterns Vision 0 Last mature sense 0 Detect changes in brightness 0 Can see patterns PSYC 333 Week 3 Infant sensory capabilities cont 0 See colors although discrimination is good by 23 months Newborns are very nearsighted Poor acuity see as well as adults by 12 months Show preference for faces Distinguish their mother s face from other women s Frantz s test of infant pattern preferences One normal face One face with features scrambled One plain face Infants prefer first two basically the same 2 months old Visual perfection in infants 0 Early pattern perception 012 months Prefer moderately complex pattern Not too complex because it will blur 0 Later Form Perception 2 months1 year More sensitive to movement Begin to perceive objects are whole forms Use subjective contours o Perception of 3D objects Size constancy Present at birth but not fully developed until 1011 years old Movement cues 13 months Binocular cues 35 months Monocular cues 67 months 0 Depth perception Use of visual cliff Most infants 905 at 65 months crawling perceived depth 2 mothsolds showed decrease heart rate a sign of interest but not fear Experience through motor development is important OOOOO lntermodal perception Are the senses integrated at birth 0 Yes reaching for objects seen look in the direction of a sound Cultural influences on infant perception Language 0 Become sensitive to sounds important to specific language English vs Chinese r and I sounds Chinese make no distinction between these phonemes Music 0 Familiar with own culture s music Growth of perceptual skills includes adding new skills and losing unnecessary ones Culture determines which sensory inputs are distinctive and how to interpret those inputs Infant memory 23 month old infants learn to kick their leg to make a mobile move 2 month old infants remember the muscle movements for 3 days 3 month old infects remember for 1 week Results highly contextdependent 0 Don t know they can make all mobiles move Basic learning processes Learning change in behavior that produces a new way to think about perceive or react to the environment Classical conditioning Unconditioned stimulus US elicits an unconditioned response UCR PSYC 333 Week 3 Basic learning processes cont Child gets startled by loud noise Neutral conditioned stimulus CS paired with unconditioned response UCR Eventually CS elicits a conditioned response CR Possible for newborns but must have some survival value Little Albert showed a white rat while making a loud banging noise eventually became afraid of all white furry things Watson behaviorism Operant conditioning Learner emits a response operates on an environment Associates this action with the consequences it produces o Newborns learn very slowly rate increases with age 0 Goal repeat behaviors that have a favorable outcome and limit behaviors that have an unfavorable outcome When children get constipated it makes them not want to go to the bathroom anymore because it hurts 0 Infants newborn babies can be operantly conditioned but it takes a very large number of trials up to 200 3 month olds 40 trials 5 month olds 30 trials Observational learning attend to a model and from a symbolic representation of model s behavior 0 Newborn imitation possible at 7 days old if part of behavioral repertoire o Bobo the clown studies 0 O O O Sleep and Arousal States OOOOOOO 89 hours in regular sleep state 89 hours in Irregular sleep state 30 minutes3 hours in drowsiness 23 hours in alert inactivity 13 hours in alert activity 13 hours crying Suprachiasmaric nuclei 0 Region of the hypothalamus o Regulates sleep S process positive sleep pressure When you need sleep based on the last time you slept C process circadian Why you get tired and aroused at the same time every day Infants don t appear to have the circadian wave this develops later on Behavioral insomnia of Childhood ICSD II 0 Sleep onset association subtype Falling asleep is an extended process that requires special conditions eg parental touch Sleep onset associations are highly problematic or demanding In the absence of the associated conditions sleep onset is significantly delayed or sleep is otherwise disrupted Nighttime awakenings require caregiver intervention for the child to return to sleep PSYC 333 Week 3
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