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Week 12 Psych notes

by: Hannah Kirby

Week 12 Psych notes PSY 2603

Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1

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Notes from week 12 lectures
Developmental Psychology
Lara Mayeux
Class Notes
Psychology, developmental, Lifespan, development
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 04/16/16
Week 12 Psych Notes Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality A child’s world: video notes First challenge they face is distinguishing between women and men As early as 12 months, children begin to play with traditional male/female toys Girls, brain develops in ways that combine both sides of brain, such as language and emotions Children have to understand that gender is permanent, not based on what one is wearing Rigid gender rules and brain chemistry driving a wedge between the two genders Boys and girls only groups, where differences are more exaggerated.  Lecture notes: Perspectives on gender development Biological, social, and cognitive influences, gender differences, and gender identity  development Sex versus Gender  Sex: biological aspect of being male or female  Gender: social and psychological aspects  o Gender roles, expectations, behaviors Biological influences on gender  Hormones o Estrogens (female) o Androgens (male)  Atypical levels of hormones prenatally can affect later behavior o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (girls= enjoy typical masculine activities as kids) o Androgen insensitivity disorder (boys= some have female gender identity)  Evolutionary? o Premise: males and females faced different challenges due to different roles in  reproduction o Natural selection favored different strategies depending on sex  Males­ having as many babies as possible  How to accomplish? You know…  Experiment done­ experimenter asked males and females  (strangers) 2 questions­ Will you go out with me? Will you go to  my apartment right now? 49% men said yes, 11% women said yes.  Females­ ensuring survival of as many babies as possible  How to accomplish? Partner up with someone who can provide  resources necessary to help babies survive  What does this mean for evolved social behavior? Early socialization of gender roles: social cognitive theory of gender  Premise: gender develops via observation, imitation, rewards and punishments for  gendered behavior  Girls and boys are talked to differently, treated differently—from infancy o Communication:  Nicknames  Emotion­focused speech  Focus on anticipated roles o Behavior toward boys and girls  More physical and rough play with boys  Girls are coddled, held close  Parents reinforce gendered behavior during playtime: o Langlois and Downs (1980) o 3­ and 5­year­olds and their parents o Results: parents intervene when children play with gender atypical toys­ boys can  initially want to play with dolls, and girls can initially want to play with trucks.  Fathers tend to intervene more when child is playing with something not meant  for their gender­ especially if their child is a boy.  Parents own behaviors can shape the child’s gender role o “Traditional” parents: child is more likely to expect that is normal and will  assume those roles for themselves o “Peer or partner” parents: child will have more egalitarian views, equal work and  no such thing as “mom’s work” or “dad’s work” there is simply “parents  working”  Social role theory o Premise: societal roles impose limits on boys and girls behavior, shape  opportunities, expectations, psychological characteristics  Ex: occupational roles, family roles (women as support; men as leaders) o Boys are allowed more opportunities and autonomy   Parents have less concern about boys being kidnapped than girls; worrying less about boys getting harmed from activities; boys are allowed to play  further from the home and play more risky activities  Boys and girls are channeled into different activities (boys to sports, girls  to girl scouts, relational roles)  Parents provide different environments for boys and girls o Observational study for boys’ vs girls’ bedrooms (1975 & 1990):  Children: 1 month to 6 years old  Boys have lots of vehicles, machinery, army equipment, soldiers,  sports equipment  Girls: family oriented toys, feminine decorated, dolls, flowers and  ruffles Cognitive influences:  Gender schema theory: o Children encode info related to gender beginning in infancy (schemas) o Motivated to conform to their correct schema o Cognitive effects on:   Memory  Self­schemas  Attitudes toward others  Gender differences:  o Physical differences  Body fat (females have higher percent body fat than males)  Height (males typically taller than females)  Life expectancy (women have longer than males)  Infant mortality (higher for male newborns vs female newborns)  Percentage of infants who die before first birthday  More males born than females  Evens out after first year  Physical and mental health (women are less likely to be diagnosed with  overall problems)  Stress hormones (higher concentration in females than males, which is  why men usually have more problems related to stress—heart problems,  etc.)  Brain structure (region for sexual behavior larger in males, emotional  processing larger and more active in females, cognitive and organizational region larger for females)  Behavior can alter brain structure, brain develops in response to  various differences in behavior o Cognitive differences  Visuospatial skills (better in females, difference very small)  Reading and writing (females tend to outperform boys, but not by much)  “Doing School” school environments are better geared toward females   How well do they respond to school environment? How well do  they sit still? How well do they follow curriculum and engage in  structured lessons?  o Social/Emotional differences  Physical aggression (males more so than females)  Relational aggression (males interact differently than females)  Emotional expression (females more so than males)  Emotional regulation (females more so than males) So where do we see differences, and what’s the source?   Biological?  Evolutionary?  Social roles?  Socialization? o Parents, caregivers, teachers, peers, media Gender Development  Infancy o No sense of their own gender or sex o By age 1, gender­typed play  Early and middle childhood o Know much about gender expectations by preschool  o Prefer same sex peers by preschool o Boys are socialized more quickly and more strongly  Late childhood o Rules relax some o Gender segregation relaxes o Friendships based less on gender, more on play preferences  Adolescence  o Gender­intensification hypothesis   Gender differences become more pronounced in early adolescence  because of increased pressure to conform to traditional roles   Not all adolescents experience this  Adulthood  o Communication differences   Rapport vs report talk  Rapport is informational but also establishes emotional connection  Report is only information, more formal o Challenges for women:  Self­interest rather than sole focus on nurturing others o Challenges for men:  Role strain—we tell men not to be “traditional” males, but punish them  when they don’t “act like men”  Aging o Roles relax, men and women are more free to be psychologically androgynous   Men experience more change than women o Cultural variations Aggression and Prosocial behavior 1. Socialization and prosociality & empathy  2. Types of aggression 3. Development of aggression Prosocial behavior  Voluntary behavior that is intended to benefit another o Performed for egotistic, other­oriented (altruistic), or practical concerns Development of prosocial behavior  Infancy o Emotional reactions to others’ distress (shortly after birth) o Sharing/ showing toys without being prompted, showing affection (by one year) o Approach and attempt to comfort a distressed child (13­14 months)  Early childhood o By age 2, children show a variety of helping behaviors  Verbal advice  Sharing (although not consistently)  Distracting a distressed person from the source of their upset  Protection/ defense  Environmental influences on the development of prosocial behavior  Parenting o Inductive discipline­ talking, explaining to kids why certain behavior is wrong o Sympathy­ modeled for kids o Warmth/ acceptance­ more likely to internalize parents’ values  Direct modeling of prosocial behaviors  Praising the prosocial nature of children who show prosocial behavior  Television  o “mister rogers’ neighborhood” segments that focus on understanding the feelings  of others, expressing sympathy, and helping others  School  o “The hidden curriculum”  Rules of appropriate behavior  Teachers as models of ethical behavior  “character education” Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning  Type of reasoning: preconventional o Behavior driven by rewards and punishments o Stage 1: heteronomous morality­ only act prosocially to avoid being punished  o Stage 2: equal exchange­ act prosocially because they think they will be  rewarded; reciprocity  Second type of reasoning: conventional reasoning o Child follows standards/ rules, but they are the rules of someone else (parents,  teachers, law) o Stage 3: interpersonal expectations­ living up to someone’s expectations, wanting  them to see them as good o Stage 4: social systems morality­ seeing necessity of rules and how they protect  everyone, keep everyone in line


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