Week 12 Zoology notes
Week 12 Zoology notes BIOL 1114, 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro to zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
Week 12 zoo notes Muscle fibers generate ATP in multiple ways At rest muscle cells have ATP and creatine phosphate floating around During activity: 1) ATP used up quickly 2) creatine phosphate can recharge ADP ADP + creatine P ATP + creatine Used up ATP floating around, used up creatine phosphate, muscle cells low on oxygen now what? (Ch. 6 review) Need to make more ATP Glycolysis (anaerobic) Lactic acid (burning sensation in muscles = acidic) Cell is now in oxygen debt, borrowing to make ATP Oxygen arrives (circulatory and respiratory) Cellular respiration (aerobic) Rigor Mortis: body goes stiff after death No more ATP Sarcomeres stuck in position Slow vs Fast twitch muscles How quickly they contract Endurance Influence athletic performance Exercise also increases The diameter of muscle cells The efficiency of muscle cell metabolism # mitochondria Blood flow to muscles Bone strength Circulatory system Transport system of the body Heart is a specialized muscle Respiratory system OxygenCO2 exchange Animal circulatory system o Picks up nutrients from intestines o Deliver nutrients to all cells o Exchange O2 and CO2 at lungs o Exchange O2 and CO2 at cells (cellular respiration) o Pick up metabolic waste from all over o Drop off waste at kidneys o Deliver hormones all over An open circulatory system has short open ended vessels In a closed system, blood does not leave system, remains in vessels The heart is a muscular pump Myocardium contains cardiac muscle cells Cardiac muscle nucleus, muscle fiber, intercalated disc Unique: gap junctions, highly branched Pericardium sac that surrounds the heart The right half: 1) Receives deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body 2) Pumps deoxygenated blood straight to the lungs to get oxygenated The left half: 1) Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs 2) Pumps it to the rest of the body to get deoxygenated Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from superior vena cava, blood is dumped into right ventricle, which pumps it to the lungs through pulmonary arteries, and blood returning from lungs will be pulmonary veins Veins more elastic than arteries so they can hold more blood The left atrium receives blood, pumps to left ventricle, then blood is sent to rest of body through aorta Stronger heart= each contraction can pump more blood The heart of an athlete will beat slower than the average person with a weaker heart Rate of living hypothesis Respiratory system Active cells require O2 and release CO2 during aerobic respiration Air moves from high to low pressure Greater volume = lower pressure Less volume = higher pressure We don’t “suck in” air—we create pressure changes by o Contracting muscles in diaphragm and rib cage expands chest cavity, drawing air in o Relaxation of muscles in diaphragm and rib cage allows lungs to recoil, expelling air Lung= elastic; natural tendency to recoil; like a balloon In cases when rib cage is broken and lung is not punctured, then ventilators can push air into lungs, lungs will deflate on own (assuming not punctured) Tidal volume how much air passes in and out of the lungs when breathing normally, during rest Vital capacity maximum amount of air than can be deeply inhaled Inhalation low pressure in lungs, higher volume Exhalation high pressure in lungs, lower volume
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