NOTES_4.7.16___4.14.16.pdf History 1020
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Saturday April 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/16/16
NOTES 4.7.16 ; 4.12.16 ; 4.14.16 Alex Phillips Professor Casteel HIST 1020 THE COLD WAR - French Indochina o Cambodia, Laos, etc o Imperialism - French goal to spread Catholicism and get stuf o Cofee, tea, rubber - Remember the 14 points o Decolonization/self-determination HO CHI MINH - founder of communist party in Vietnam o before, he was a member of the French communist party - in WWII French lose to Germany o when this happens, Japanese take over Indochina - Japanese leave Indochina and now its called the Democratic Republic of Vietnam o Now France wants to make it their colony again o EFFECT: Anti-French Resistance War aka First Indochina war THE US OPINION OF FRENCH IN VIETNAM - The us does not think the French should be in Vietnam - Pause Vietnam – MEANWHILE IN CHINA - wars in China over who should have power - Chiang Kai-Shek o Against communism and for nationalism - Mao Zedong o For communism (leader of party) o Opponent of Chiang Kai-Shek o Many people leaning toward communism - Soviet Union gives weapons and $$$ to Chinese Communist Party - Guerilla warfare o 1949 China becomes communist - back to Vietnam – U.S. NEW OPINION OF FRENCH IN VIETNAM - they want them in Vietnam now - since China now communist, US is scared these neighboring countries will fall to communism - French surrender at Dien Bien Phu to Vietnamese o French leave Vietnam - Geneva Accords o Vietnam divided @ 17 parallel o North = communist : South = Bao Dai’s state of Vietnam A DIVIDED VIETNAM - Ngo Dinh Diem overthrows Bao Dai and creates Republic of Vietnam - Ho Chi Minh attacks S. Vietnam b/c they wouldn’t hold elections o START OF VIETNAM WAR (2 nd Indochina war) - In S. Vietnam, National Liberation Front formed o Also called Vietcong o Communist supporters of Ho Chi Minh in S. Vietnam o Wanted to unify Vietnam - Ngo Dinh Diem was a terrible leader o U.S. still supported him b/c he was anti communist o He was a Catholic who hated Buddhists (most Vietnamese) o In retaliation, Buddhists monks set themselves on fire WHY U.S. GOT INVOLVED - Diem killed by army of Republic of Vietnam - Lyndon Johnson sworn in as president - Domino efect - Johnson got approval from congress to do whatever needed to defeat the Vietnamese o “blank check” o Gulf of Tonkin ( why Johnson went to congress) USS Essex attacked U.S. IN VIETNAM (LBJ) - Blanket bombing or saturation bombing o Operation Rolling Thunder: tactic to make N. Vietnamese give up - sends more and more troops - Operation Ranch Hand: burned countryside that was occupied by Vietcong in S. Vietnam o Killed forests and crops (Agent Orange) o Burned you and turned you orange o Caused birth defects - TV heavily used o Reporters in fields reporting live o This gave people two opposing sides (for and against) o Uncensored TV - Tet Ofensive: massive attacks held on Vietnamese New year o Supposed to have ended the war but didn’t o Caused a lot of opposition - Propaganda against the war - Soldiers beginning to question who the enemy is o Burning of Cam Ne and My Lai Massacre o Killed b/c there may or may not have been people who supported the Vietcong US IN VIETNAM: NIXON - wanted US out of Vietnam - Vietnamization: plan to take the US troops out and put S. Vietnamese soldiers in their place - He actually wanted to win so he launched a secret war called operation menu o Bombed Cambodia and Laos (nations the U.S. was not at war with) - This was on TV so more people in the U.S. outraged o Some protests peaceful, some not o Kent State: 4 students killed by National Guard b/c the students were getting rowdy o Jackson State: Vietnam protest/Civil Rights protest (2 killed) - Pentagon Papers: govt. docs. Leaked about Johnson’s war efort o Basically saying the war was about winning and not containment o EFFECT: peace talks had to be made - Cease fire b/w N. Vietnam and U.S. and the U.S. got out o As soon as troops left, N. Vietnam attacked S. Vietnam and it fell to communism and formed one state DECOLONIZATION IN AFRICA SOUTH AFRICA - Union of South Africa - Gave South Africa right to rule themselves o But still under British crown - After WWII, 3 groups o 1. British 2. Afrikaners (Dutch Boers) 3. Africans - 1948 election where National Party gains power o enforces segregation laws APARTHEID - segregation b/w whites and non-whites - miscegenation (mixed race marriage) - groups o 1. Whites o 2. Black (Bantu) o 3. Asian/Indian o 4. Coloured (mixed) - only white people could vote - Bantu Authorities Act 1951 o Groups of people sent to live in designated “homelands” o Made them seem like independent nations which made them unable to be citizens in South Africa o Couldn’t have passports HOMELAND - 80% land designated for all groups but Blacks o those three groups made up 20% of the population - Sophiatown, Johannesburg subdivision o People forced out by tanks - People no longer citizens of S. Africa so they weren’t really citizens of anywhere FURTHER SEGREGATION - Separate Amenities Act 1953 o Separate schools, hospitals o Severely understafed - Needed a “pass” to be in a “white area” o Sort of like an ID ANC - African National Congress - Peaceful protests - Black, green, yellow flag o Almost became like an underground symbol NELSON MANDELA - ANC member who was an advocate for non violent protest - He and Gandhi organized huge protest against passbooks - The Sharpeville Massacre o Police opened fire on demonstrators o Killed 69 injured about 200 people - Arrested for allegedly trying to overthrow the govt. o Sabotage o Sentenced to life in prison THE WORLD RESPONDS - UN condemns Mandela’s sentence/trial - Optional sanctions (could implement or not) o Stop trade o Sports o Stop tourism - 1961 South Africa is own country separate from British Empire EDUCATION - Africans forced to be educated in a certain way - Taught by Europeans (white) - Students protest b/c they aren’t allowed to learn about their own culture and heritage o Ex) had to learn Afrikaners - Students went on strike 1976 o Police shot them b/c throwing stones o Children under 18 o Death toll = 200 RESPONSE TO UPRISINGS - could be arrested w/o trial - whites frustrated w/ uprisings - govt. tortured and arrested people to try and stop uprisings o about 200,000 arrested - all of this strengthens resistance ROAD TO END APARTHEID - FW De Klerk: dismantled apartheid - Freed Mandela and pardoned him on behalf of S. African govt. o After 27 years in prison - Allowed ANC not to be illegal - Starts to restore citizenship to all S. Africans o Wants them to be able to vote - De Klerk and Mandela win Nobel Peace Prize 1993 o Pushing S. Africa to democracy - 1994 election open to everyone o Nelson Mandela elected president of S. Africa AFTERMATH - the white flee S. Africa to Europe and the U.S. - many Africans moved back to where they lived before to find jobs - cant aford homes at first so they build temporary housing called “shanty towns” - disease spreads o over crowded - AIDS many S. Africans afected o Directly related to poverty that stemmed from Apartheid o Most cases of infection in the world - Truth and Reconciliation Commission o Make sure principles of Apartheid no longer happening or being carried out o Only punished people who actually committed crimes (such as murder) o Reconciliation THE END OF THE COLD WAR HUNGARIAN ECON 1956 - unemployment, poverty: people unhappy (blame Russian) o better wages, more food - cut communist symbol out of middle of flag - graffiti saying “go home Russians” o more and more protesters - protesters destroy giant monument of Stalin o only boots left o planted Hungarian flag in boots - Imre Nagy : put in charge to ease protesters’ unhappiness o Not originally on protesters’ side but eventually joins them o Declares Hungary not a part of Warsaw Pact and declares it to be free - Hungarian message: Radio Free Europe RADIO FREE EUROPE - thinks Europe going to help them if Soviets try to take them again - Soviets go to Hungary o At least 100,000 tanks, Hungarians killed o Keep fighting b/c waiting for Europeans to come help - Remember that Yalta conference gave Stalin (USSR) influence in Eastern Europe - Communism restored in Hungary by Soviets LEADERSHIP IN SOVIET UNION - Khrushchev seen as a weak leader for bargaining - Small revolts start in satellite states - Khrushchev retired - Lenoid Brezhnev new leader o Wanted to be conveyed as strong SOVIET UNION ECONOMY - Consumer goods not available o Appliances o Shoes THE SATELLITE STATES - Czechoslovakia o Riots b/c people aggravated - Brezhnev put Alexander Dubcek in charge o Implements democratic socialism (loose socialism) o Limited freedom of press, elections maybe o Don’t want to separate from Soviet Union - Riots: Prague Spring - Brezhnev was afraid of revolution for democracy BREZHNEV DOCTRINE - will use any means necessary to attack places that denounce communism o opposite of containment - Czek people painted over road signs and too house numbers of to keep soviets out of downtown Prague as long as possible - Soviets drove tanks into Prague - Jan Palach (college student) set himself on fire in protest - Prague spring increased Czek nationalism - USSR gets more tyrannical o EFFECT: satellite states don’t want to revolt POLAND: SOLIDARITY 1980 - starts as dock worker strike -> turns into trade union -> turns into national anti communist movement - 600 factories strike and stop economy all together - solidarity outlawed when Brezhnev responds o responds same way as in Czek - Solidarity moves underground o Secret meetings as to how to break away from USSR - Brezhnev dies and succeeded by more old communist leaders who also die MIKHAIL GORBACHEV - new “hip” young leader 1985 - advocates for Glasnost (openness) – no more censorships – and Perestroika (reconstructing) – rebuilding economy - Revolutions of 1989 POLAND: 1989 - decide to have elections w/ more than one party as option - Solidarity sweeps elections o None who identify themselves as communist o Non communist govt.: means Poland is out of Soviet Union - President = Lech Walesa - Reverse domino theory: Poland made example SINATRA DOCTRINE: GORBACHEV - will not interfere w/ nations who want to make own govt, but will support those who want to stay - reverse domino theory: Hungary was next - held elections October 1989 - Republic of Hungary: not part of USSR - Reverse Domino Theory: Czechoslovakia o Called velvet revolution b/c not violent o Got out of Soviet Union o President= Vaclav Havel o Jingle keys to say goodbye to Soviet troops: mocking - Reverse Domino Theory: Easy Germany o Regan didn’t make Berlin fall down, people did o “Mr. Gorbachev: tear down this wall” o East Germans got into W. Germany through Austria Hungary let Austrian boarder be free so E. Germans go from Poland to Czek., to Hungary, to Austria, to W. Germany o Vote to unify o No longer part of Soviet Union - Gorbachev brought down communism in E, Europe and won Nobel Peace Prize - However, USSR is dissolving AUTMN OF NATIONS - many nations break away from Soviet Union - people in communist party in USSR are angry that Gorbachev lose satellite states o try to overthrow Gorbachev MEETING IN BELARUS: DISSOLVING USSR - Russia, Ukraine, Belarus meet to talk about problems w/ Gorbachev - Decide to leave USSR and create Commonwealth of Independent States - 8 of 12 left in Soviet Union leave and join the Commonwealth - by late 1991 the Soviet Union isn’t a thing anymore o Gorbachev resigns - 1992 map is completely diferent
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