Lecture Notes for Week of 2/8/15
Lecture Notes for Week of 2/8/15 PSY-P 102
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Kahn on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 102 at Indiana University taught by Jim Cuellar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/12/15
PERSONALIW NOTES Cont Psychoanalytic Approach and Sigmund Freud cont 0 The Latency and Genital Stages 0 Latency 5 yerspuberty Because the Oedipus complex causes anxiety sexual urges of boys and girls become repressed children desire to associate with sameOsex peers a preference that that strengthens the child s sexual identity 0 Genital Stage purbertyadulthood NeoFruedian Psychodynamic Theories 0 Carl Jung s collective unconscious 0 Karen Horney s focus on security 0 Alfred Adler s individual psychology 0 NeoFreudians Concepts 0 agreed the importance of the unconscious and early childhood but they developed their own personality theories 0 disagree behavior was primarily motived by sexual urges personality is fundamentally determined by early childhood experiences generally pessimistic view of human nature and society Carl JungArchetypes and the Collective Unconscious 0 people motivated by more general psychic energy to achieve growth 0 believed in collective unconscious 0 based on human collective evolutionary history archetypes 0 mental images of universally human instances themes and peroccupations 0 common archetypal themes that are expressed in virtually every culture are hero powerful father nurturing mother which wise old man innocent child and death and rebirth 0 two important archetypes that Jung 1951 described are anima and animus representative of female and masculine qualities 0 collective unconscious storehouse of memories inherited from the common ancestries of the whole human race no counterpart in Freud s theory 0 Archetypesfound in all cultures Persona social role Shadow unsocial thoughts feelings and behaviors Anima feminine side of male psyche Animus masculine side of female psyche Self central archetype and true midpoint of personalty mandalas o Jung s Structure of Personality o Egoone s conscious mind 0 Personal Unconscious perceptions thoughts feelings that are easier retrieved repressed or forgotten individuals experiences organized into complexes introvrets and extroverts are complexes 0 Collective Unconscious KarenHorneyBasic Anxiety and Womb Envyquot o stressed importance of cultural social factors in personality development c looked at anxiety related to security and social relationships 0 Basic anxiety 0 feeling of being isolated and helpless in a hostile worlds 0 child s fear of being alone helpless and insecure 0 described three patterns of behavior that the individual uses to defend against basic anxiety moving toward against or away from other people 0 Neurotic Coping Strategies 0 Moving Toward People attempting to make theories happy to gain love and to secure approval and affection Passive Style get along by being compliant 0 Moving Against People striving for power recognition and admiration Aggressive Style fighting to get by 0 Moving Away From People withdrawal of emotional investment from relationships to avoid being hurt Withdrawn Style feel best not to engage emotionally at all 0 Womb Envy O O O O O o disagreed with Freud s interpretation of female development and notion that women suffer from penis envy 0 what women envy in meant is not their penis but their superior status in society 0 contented that men often suffer womb envy envying women s compact to bear children 0 men compensate for minor role in reproduction by striving to make creative achievements in their work 0 believed that the drive to grow psychologically and achieve one s potential is basic human motive Horney s Concept of Self 0 Real Selfinner core of personality that we perceive about ourselvespotential of self realization o Despised Self perceptions of inferiority and shortcomings based on others negative feedback result in feeling helpless 0 Ideal Self views as perfection and hows to achieve tyranny of the Shouldsquot Alfred Adler Feelings of Superiority most fundamental human movie is striving for superiority security and power arises from universal feelings of inferiority that are experiences during childhood these feelings motivate people to compensate for real or imagined weaknesses by emphasizing talents and abilities and by working hard to improve themselves overcompensation may cause superiority complex in which a person exaggerates their own achievements and importance lnferiority Complex 0 when people are unable to compensate for specific weaknesses or when feelings of inferiority are excessive can develop an inferiority complex a general sense of inadequacy weakness and helplessness o Adler believed that humans were motivated to grow and achieve their personal goals 0 emphasized importance of cultural influences and social relationships 0 he discounted Freud s emphasis on the importance of the sexual and aggressive drives o Strive for Superiority o ultimate goal of life 0 drive to perfection 0 not an attempt to be better than others 0 Fictional Finalism reach goals set in future to be complete whole and may be unrealistic fantasy potential goals guide behavior 0 Style of Life Personality 0 expression of striving for superiority to attain goals 0 learned from early social interactions 0 guiding framework for all later behaviors 0 Social Interest the end to care for others be a part of a familycommunity derived from our instinctual drive to be social 0 Birth Order 0 major social influence in childhood 0 First Born oriented to past role of leader organize scrupulous 0 Second Born optimistic competitive ambitious o Youngest high achievers or helpless and dependent 0 Only Child difficult when not center of attention mature early The Humanistic Perspective on Personality o emphasizes free will selfawareness and psychological growth 0 emphasizes inherent goodness of people human potential self actualization selfconcept and healthy personality development c The Emergence of the Third Forcequot 0 another gourd of psychologists opposed to both psychoanalysis and behaviorism championed a third force in psychology 0 saw people being innately good 0 focused on the healthy personality 0 doubted that laboratory research with rats and pigeons accurately reflected human nature 0 most important factor in personality is the individual s conscious subjective perception of self 0 major figuresCarl Rogers Abraham Maslow 0 Carl RogersThe SelfConcept 0 most basic human motive is actualizing tendency the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism 0 other drives are secondary o Selfconcept set of perceptions and beliefs you hold about yourself 0 people are motivated in accordance with selfconcept self concept begins early in life 0 positive regard sense of being loved and valued by others 0 children s increasing selfawareness produces need for positive regard o regard can be conditional and unconditional Unconditional positive regard child s sense of being unconditionally loved and valued even if she or he doesn t conform to standards and expectations of others Condition positive regard child s sense of being valued and loved only if he or she behaves in a what that is acceptable to others 0 feelings become denied or distorted not because they are threading but because they contradict the selfconcept In this case people are in a state of incongruence 0 Person Centered Theory The Self o a person who tires to reach their unique potential is self actualizing or fulling functioning real selfideal self 0 when a person is incongruent experiences that real self as threatening o to prevent this defense mechanisms distort deny experience 0 real self may be suppressed in favor of what others want you to be 0 Roger s most useful accomplishment 0 Problems with Roger s Theory 0 based on philosophical assumptions or clinical observations concepts vague and subjective cannot define or objectively measure concepts like Roger s unconditional positive recourse or selfconcepts o if self actualization is a universal human movie why is it hard to find such people encourages that need for hope but no equally realistic does not take into account human capacity for evil The Social Cognitive Perspective 0 Socalcognitive perspective behavior influence by interaction between people s traits and their social context 0 Personality is developed through o emphasis on interaction of personality and situation 0 active processing of information of social experiences 0 conscious selfgenerated goals and selfregulation 0 development of a self system based on skills abilities and attitudes o The Marshmallow Test Measuring SelfRegulation 0 1960 s Walther Mischel of Stanford University came up wit the Stanford Marshmallow Experiment 0 a marshmallow was offered to child and if child to wait 10 minute they got 2 marshmallows o interpretation delayed gratification meant a great life and more successful life 0 correlation between the marshmallow test and the success of children many years later there are many more experiments to prove a correlation between delayed gratification and higher SAT scores or higher GPA 0 Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory 0 human behavior and personality are caused by the interaction of behavioral cognitive and environmental factors 0 process called reciprocal determinism o person s cognitive skills abilities and attitudes represent the person s selfsystme 0 most critical elements influencing the selfsystem are our beliefs of selfefficacy o Selfefficacy the belief that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific taskgoal o Reciprocal Determinism 0 social cognitive perspetive personalities are shaped by the interaction of our person traits our environment and our behavior The Trait Perspective 0 trait a relatively stable enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a certain way 0 trait theory theory of personality focus on identifying describing measuring individual difference in behavioral predisposition trait theories are intended in defining traits and using this information to predict future behavior o the trait perspective on personality 0 focuses on identifying describing and measuring individual differences 0 trait theorists view the person as being a unique combination of personality characteristics or attributes called traits o trait formally defined as a relatively stable enduring predisposition to behave in a certain way 0 Surface Trait vs Source Trait 0 Surface Traits characteristic that can be inferred from observable behavior 4000 english words describe these traits ex happy quotsadquot characteristics you can determine from a given situation 0 Source Trait these are below the surface and cant just be seen from a given situation
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