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Chapter 6 & 7

by: Kristen Walsh

Chapter 6 & 7 BSC 108

Kristen Walsh
GPA 3.1
Intro to Biology
Dr. Yates

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Intro to Biology
Dr. Yates
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Walsh on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 477 views.


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Date Created: 02/12/15
Chapter 6 Plants and autotrophs selffeeders make their own organic matter from inorganic nutrients Producers depend Heterotrophs otherfeeders Include humans and animals that cant make organic molecules from inorganic ones Consumers eat them Cellular respiration Animals and Plants Glucose Oxygen gt carbon dioxide water ATP Photosynthesis Plants Carbon dioxide Water gt Glucose Oxygen gas Waste products of CR reactants of photosynthesis C02 is obtained from the air by the plants leaves H20 is obtained from the damp soil by the plants roots Plant and Animal cells perform cellular respiration that Primarily occurs in mitochondria Harvests energy stored in organic molecules Uses oxygen and generates ATP Aerobic CR chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP Requires oxygen Aerobic Metabolism enough oxygen reaches cells for energy needs Anaerobic Metabolism oxygen is greater than ability to delivery it The Role of Oxygen in Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration can produce up to 38 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule consumed During CR hydrogen and its bonding electrons change partners 0 Hydrogen and its electrons go from sugar to oxygen forming water 0 This hydrogen transfer is why oxygen is so vital to cellular respiration Cellular Respiration A controlled fall of electrons A stepwise cascade like going down a staircase o The path that electrons take on their way down from glucose to oxygen involves many steps Step one is an electron acceptor called NAD n The transfer of electrons from organic fuel to NAD reduces it to NADH The rest of the path consists of an electron transport chain which involves a series of redox reactions Ultimately leading to the production of large amounts of ATP The Metabolic Pathway of Cellular Respiration 1 Stage 1 Glycolysis o A sixcarbon glucose molecule is split in half to form two molecules of pyruvic acid 0 These two molecules then donate high energy electrons to NAD forming NADH 0 Uses two ATP molecules per glucose to split the six carbon glucose Makes four additional ATP directly when enzymes transfer phosphate groups from fuel molecules 0 Produces a net of two molecules of ATP per glucose molecule 2 Stage 2 Citric Acid Cycle aka Krebs cycle 0 Extracts the energy of sugar by breaking the acetic acid molecules all the way down to C02 0 Uses some of this energy to make ATP 0 Forms NADH and FADH2 3 Stage 3 Electron Transport Chain 0 Electron transport releases the energy your cells need to make the most of their ATP 0 The molecules of electron transport chains are built into the inner membranes of mitochondria The chain functions as a chemical machine that uses energy released by the fall of electrons to pump hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane These ions store potential energy 0 This is where the 02 you breathe is used When the hydrogen ions flow back through the membrane they release energy 0 The hydrogen ions flow through ATP Synthase 0 ATP Synthase Takes the energy from this flow Synthesizes ATP Cyanide is a deadly poison o Binds to one of the protein complexes in the electron transport chain 0 Prevents the passage of electrons to oxygen 0 Stops the production of ATP Cellular Respiration can burn other kinds of molecules besides glucose 0 Diverse types of Carbohydrates o Fats 0 Proteins Fermentation anaerobic harvest of food energy Some of your cells can work for short periods of time without oxygen Fermentation the anaerobic harvest of food energy 0 Alone fermentation is able to sustain many types of microorganisms The lactic acid produced by microbes using fermentation is used to produce Cheese sour cream and yogurt dairy products Soy sauce pickles olives Sausage meat products Yeast are a type of microscopic fungus that Use a different type of fermentation Produce C02 and ethyl alcohol instead of lactic acid This type of fermentation called alcoholic fermentation produces Beer Wine Breads Body performs aerobic respiration most of the time Chapter 7 The Basics of Photosynthesis Almost all plants are photosynthetic autotrophs as are some bacteria and protists 0 They generate their own organic matter through photosynthesis In photosynthesis energized electrons are added to carbon dioxide to make sugar 0 Sunlight provides energy Chloroplasts sites of photosynthesis Photosynthesis o Occurs in chloroplast Chloroplasts o Are found in the cells of the mesophyll 0 Contain stroma a thick fluid 0 Contain thylakoids membranous sacs Stomata of the leaf takes in C02 and produces 02 Photosynthesis is a twostep process the light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy the Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide Light reactions converting solar energy to chemical energy sunlight is a type of energy called radiation or electromagnetic energy the full range of radiation is called the electromagnetic spectrum Chloroplasts absorb light energy and convert it to chemical energy Chloroplast Pigments They contain several pigments o Chlorophyll a o Chlorophyll b o Carotenoids How photosynthesis harvest light energy Light behaves as photons discrete packets of energy Chlorophyll molecules absorb protons o Electrons in the pigments gain energy 0 As the electrons fall back to their ground state energy is released as heat or light A photosystem is a group of chlorophyll ad other molecules that function as a lightgathering antenna How the light reactions generate ATP and NADPH Two types of photosystems cooperate in the light reactions 0 The watersplitting photosystem o The NADPHproducing photosystem An electron transport chain 0 Connects the two photosystems o Releases energy that the chloroplast uses to make ATP The Calvin Cycle making sugar from carbon dioxide Functions like a sugar factory within a chloroplast Regenerates the starting material with each turn Water saving adaptations of C4 and CAM Plants C3 plants 0 Use C02 directly from the air 0 Are very common and widely distributed C4 plants 0 Close their stomata to save water during hot and dry weather 0 Can still carry out photosynthesis CAM plants 0 Open their stomata only at night to conserve water Photosynthesis has an enormous impact on the atmosphere It swaps 02 for C02 Alternative forms of photosynthesis are done primarily to save water


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