Biological Basis of Psychology
Biological Basis of Psychology
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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Quinnolyn Benson-Yates on Friday April 11, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 154 views.
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Date Created: 04/11/14
Thursday April 10 2014 Biopsychology Week 2 lecture notes Lecture1 continued Neuroanatomy The Gray Matter mostly made of cell bodies each layer 6 different layers consists of different cell types some layers receive info and process it other layers send info following processing in most cortex the cells responding to a certain type of info are arranged in columns columnar organization layer either receive info or transmit info to other neurons each Brodmann 1909 areas has a different architecture to it each contain different functions cytoarchitectonics the study of the arrangement and characteristic organization of neuronal cell bodies in the brain and spinal cord White Matter seen in sliced view of brain laterally mostly the myelinated axons from cell bodies that transmit info from neuron to neuron whitish appearance caused by fatty tissue Brain functioning depends on the connections between regions how different areas are communicated with one another affects how brain func ons Ventricles of the brain sacs of cerebral spinal fluid keeps brain safely cushioned away from the skull Thursday April 10 2014 Blood supply to the brain brain depends on the blood flow for oxygen wo it will die quickly Brain uses up a lot of energy 20 of energy body consumes 3 main artery systems anterior cerebral artery middle cerebral artery posterior cerebral artery Stroke a disorder of blood vessel either a block or a rupture that destroys or cripples particular brain regions deprived of blood kills off brain cells quickly Bloodbrain barrier protects the brain from some substances that may be found in the blood Makes it tricky for antianxiety drugs to work etc Mostly it protects usthough Lecture 2 Neurons An electrical storm in the brain seizure the synchronized excitation of large groups of nerve cells evident in electroencephalography EEG as an abnormal pattern of brain activity sometimes can be partial part or whole brain seizures they locate what part of the brain is where the seizures begin then they go in and take out that part of the brain sometimes hard to pinpoint source so they have to remove part of the skull to place EEG electrodes directly on the brain to measure or stimulate electrical activity of neurons video hitting the hippocampus triggered the seizure and also brought back the memory of an old tv show that the patient watched as a kid removing part of the hippocampus helped the patient tremendously neuronal communication is an electrochemical process Electrical due to movement of ions through a neuron chemical due to the exchange of neurotransmitters between neurons Structure of the neuron cell body soma contains the cell nucleus dendrites receives signals from other cells one of extensions of the cell body axon a single extension from the nerve cell that carries nerve impulses from the cell body to the neurons Thursday April 10 2014 axon terminal the end of an axon or axon collateral contain vesicles that are released into the synapse when impulses are transmitted axon hillock the conical structure at the junction between the axon and cell body Variety in the form of nerve cells different shapes with same basic properties Principle types of neurons multipolar neuron most neurons a neuron with more than two processes extending from its cell body lots of dendrites 1 axon multipolar interneuron neurons with short axons or no axons at all function to integrate the neural activity within a single brain structure not to conduct signals from one structure to another bipolar neuron 2 processes extending from body 1 makes up dendrites other is axon unipolar neuron very specialized sensory neurons one process extending from its cell body Overview of neuronal communication a presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron presynaptic neuron prior to synapse fires signal to postsynaptic postsynaptic after synapse receives the signal presynaptic neuron communicates to the postsynaptic neuron by releasing neurotransmitters across the synapse that connect with dendrite on postsynaptic neuron cause a depolarization which if strong enough it will spread down the dendrites and across the cell body integrating with the signals from other dendrites at the axon hillock if the depolarization reaches a critical threshold at the axon hillock then an action potential is conducted down the axon action potential once released will not stop all down the axon Thursday April 10 2014 once action potential reaches axon terminal it releases neurotransmitters into synapse transmitting a signal to other neurons Visualizing neurons Golgi stain is oldest method of being able to visualize a single neuron dye fills entire neuron so we can see all the parts use fluorescent dye easier to see abnormalities in shape and connectivity Nissl stain only shows up cell bodies but it makes it easier to visualize the organization of a collection of neurons in a given brain region and easier to spot missing neurons or a disorganized group of neurons Cell bodysoma nucleus contains DNA mitochondria aerobic energy release endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes proteins and fats ribosomes a substructure of the ER that synthesizes proteins Golgi Complex packages molecules in vesicles Microtubule rapidly transports material through the neuron Cell membrane selectively permeable lipid bilayer two layers of linked fatty molecules within which specialized proteins float One important type of membranespanning protein is called an ion channel Axon what transmits electrical info electrical info is integrated at the axon hillock axons may be short within the brain or very long spinal cord most are wrapped in myelin fatty tissue which speeds up the signal some axons may have branches called axon collaterals Thursday April 10 2014 Axon terminal end of the axon contains vesicles filled with neurotransmitters when an electrical impulse from the axon reaches the terminal the neurotransmitters are released into the synapse terminals may communicate directly to dendrites cell bodies or dendrite spines neurons can have multiple axon terminals on one axon Dendrites the many a extensions from the cell body and the multiple branches of each extension allow the neuron to receive inputs from many other neurons dendrites contain many dendritic spines where incoming neurons make contact dendrites contain receptors specialized to receive certain neurotransmitters where chemical inputs are transformed into electrical info and sent to the cell body Synapse an axon terminal making contact with a dendritic spine Glial Cells most cells in your brain are glial glial is the greek word for glue provide structure and support for neurons dispose of waste around neuron cells may also modulate function on neuron cells 90 of the cells in the brain are glial cells 4 classes of glial cells Astrocyte largest important for helping passing info from bloodstream into neuron may also be important for metabolism for neurons Oligodendrocyte Thursday April 10 2014 rich in fatty tissue send out extensions that wrap around the axons of some neurons in the central nervous system form myelin sheath increase speed and efficiency of axonal conduction Schwann cells perform similar function to oligodendrocytes except they are located int he peripheral nervous system and they additionally guide axonal regeneration after damage They also only constitute one myelin segment while oligodendrocyte provides several myelin segments on more than one axon Microglia smallest responds to injuries trigger inflammatory response important with helping conductance of axons and waste disposal
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