2/10 & 2/12 lecture notes, chapter 4
2/10 & 2/12 lecture notes, chapter 4 PSYC 3341
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Reyes on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3341 at University of Houston taught by Waguspack in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 225 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/12/15
Chapter 4 Psychopharmacology KEY TERMS Psychopharmacology study effects of drugs on the nervous system 0 Drug exogenous chemical not necessary for normal cellular functioning that signi cantly alters the functions of certain cells of the body when taken in relatively low doses 0 Drug effects observable changes in an animal39s physiological processes and behavior FOOD IS NOT A DRUG PRESERVATIVES ARE NOT DRUGS Sites of Action points at which molecules of drug interact with molecules located on or in cells affecting a biochemical process of the cell Pharmacokinetics process by which drugs are absorbed distributed within the body metabolized and excreted ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION how we get the drugs into the body 40 multiple choice 20 25labeHng Injection 0 Intravenous IV fastest way Highest Drugs with quicker rate overdose potential If a person had an of absorption are more overdose this method would be used addictive Heroine narcan o Intraperitoneal IP 0 Intramuscular IM l the typical shot on the arm quot u shotquot 0 Subcutaneous SC D inject drug under the skin 0 Oral o Sublingual under the tongue D longest routes has to be taken broken down and then absorbed o Intrarectal o Inhalation o Topical o Insuf ation o Intracerebral o lntracerebroventricularICV JOURNEY TO THE BRAIN o Lipid Solubility o Lipid soluble drugs easily cross the BBB then distribute themselves throughout the brain quickly 0 Depot Binding 0 Binding with tissue or proteins other than site of action 0 Delays and prolongs drug action in body METABOLISM 0 Drugs are broken down by enzymes in the blood andor liver 0 Some drugs are metabolized into biologically active agents 0 Drugs are excreted from the body primarily through the kidneys l also through sweat respiration MEASURES OF DRUG EFFECTIVENESS O DoseResponse Curve graph plotting administered doses of a drug and the corresponding effects 0 Therapeutic Index ratio of dose that produces desired effect in 50 of subjects to the dose that produces toxic effects in 50 of subjects 0 High therapeutic indexes are more desirable than low therapeutic indexes FACTORS INFLUENCING DRUG EFFECTIVENESS 0 Site of Action Some drugs are metabolized into biologically active agents 0 Af nity readiness with which two molecules join together low af nity if it doesn39t bind 0 Optimal Drug High af nity for sites producing therapeutic effect and low af nity for sites producing unwanted or toxic side effects TOLERANCE SENSITIZATION amp WITHDRAWAL O Tolerance decrease in effectiveness of a drug that is taken often 0 Sensitization increase in effectiveness of a drug that is taken often 0 Withdrawal symptoms that appear after sudden stoppage in use of a drug that was previously taken frequently usually the opposite of the drug39s effects A drug that has high af nity for therapeutic binding sites and for nontherapeutic binding sites is said to have a high therapeutic index TOLERANCE O Body39s attempt to compensate for effect of a drug and maintain homeostasis O 3 Types 0 Metabolic Tolerance D when body amps up enzymes to break down the drug 0 Pharmacodynamic Tolerance o Behavioral Tolerance 0 Primary Mechanisms of Pharmacodynamic Tolerance o Decrease in ef cacy of drug binding to receptors andor receptor downregulation o Decrease in receptor activation of ion channels or second messenger PLACEBOS O Placebo Effect a psychophysiological effect of perceived treatment or drug administration that causes changes in the individual39s symptoms or behavior a person thinking if they are treated then they will get better 0 Must administer placebos to humans and animals in research HOW DRUGS WORK 0 Agonist drug that facilitates the action of a particular neurotransmitter O Antagonist drug that inhibits the action of a particular neurotransmitter O Inverse Agonist drug that produces the opposite effect of a particular neurotransmitter 0 See Figure 44 pg 107 People w depression have serotonin shortage THE DRUGS THAT BIND 0 Direct vs Indirect Agonists amp Antagonists O Competitve vs NonCompetitive Binding won t be in the test 0 Primary vs Alternate Binding Sites Neurotransmitters O Glutamate primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS l produce EPSP O GABA primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS l produce IPSP O Glutamate and GABA are the primary transmitters of information in CNS 0 Other NT39s primarily modulate activity of neural circuits ACETYLCHOLINE ACh l every time you make any movements it is Ach doing its work 0 NT at neuromuscularjunction o Involved in the ANS o Dorsolateral Pons down in brain stem 0 ACh involved in REM sleep 0 Basal Forebrain 0 Activation of cerebral cortex and facilitation of learning 0 Medial Septum o Affects the hippocampus which affects memory formation ALL THIS quotquotquot WILL BE ON EXAM Autoreceptors are stimulated by and cause NT released by the same neuron decreased release of NT refers to the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior psychopharmacology refers to the process by which drugs are absorbed distributed within the body metabolized then excreted from the body Pharmacokinetics The is a measure of the safety of a drug Therapeutic index refers to the capacity of a drug molecule to bind to a receptor Affinity An is an innocuous substance that has no physiological effect Placebo An is a drug that blocks or inhibits postsynaptic receptor effects Antagonist Which pair of transmitters are the primary excitatory and inhibitory respectively transmitters in the brain Glutemate GABA Which of the following is true of acetylcholine ACh All of the above A ACh was the first transmitter to be identified in the body B ACh controls muscle movements ACh ifs released at the neummuscular junction D is invelved the autonomic nervous system
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