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Chapter 1 Notes

by: priitad

Chapter 1 Notes 01:830:340

Marketplace > Psychlogy > 01:830:340 > Chapter 1 Notes
GPA 3.0
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Karlin

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Notes from the textbook as well as lecture combined!
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Karlin
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by priitad on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:340 at a university taught by Dr. Karlin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.


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Date Created: 02/12/15
Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context Key Terms Psychological disorder psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response Phobia psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation Abnormal behavior actions that are unexpected and often looked upon negatively because they differ from typical or usual behavior Psychopathology scienti c study of psychological disorders Presenting problem original complaint of patient to practitioner Clinical description details of the behaviors and other patterns that make up a particular disorder Prevalence Number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time Incidence Number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a speci c period Course pattern of development and change of a disorder over time Prognosis predicted development Scientistpractitioner mental health practitioner expected to apply the scienti c method to his or her work as well as keep up to date with methods and technology and evaluate these methods for effectiveness and research new methods Catharsis a rapid or sudden release of emotion thought to play a major role in psychoanalytical therapy Unconscious part of the mental and psychic makeup that is outside of the awareness of the person Intrapsychic con icts a struggle among the id ego and superego in psychoanalytic theory Defense mechanisms Common pattern of behavior observed in response to a particular situation Psychoanalytic theory suggests that these mechanisms are unconscious processes to keep the ego in check Ego psychology psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage internal con icts and impulses also known as self psychology Object relations theory modern development in psychoanalytic theory involving the study of how children incorporate memories and values of those around them Collective unconscious accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered through generations concept by Carl Jung Selfactualizing process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against dif cult life experiences Unconditional positive regard acceptance by the counselor of client39s feeling and actions without judgement or condemnation Systematic desensitization behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears through gradual exposure of the fearful object or situation Understanding Psychopathology What is a psychological disorder Psychological dysfunction 0 this refers to a breakdown in cognitive emotional or behavioral functioning o A dysfunction is not necessarily enough to meet the criteria for a psychological disorder drawing the line between abnormal and normal dysfunction is dif cult so there is usually a continuous spectrum to describe dysfunction Personal distress Distress is natural and normal so it cannot be used as the only factor to determine dysfunction or a disorder gt Ex when someone close or important dies it causes distress normal 0 Some disorders distress is absent by de nition of that disorder gt ex manic episode may cause elated and happy feelings o Psychological disorders are basically extreme expressions of natural emotions behaviors and cognitive processes Atypical Behavior 0 There are many quotatypicalquot or quotabnormalquot behaviors and cognitive processes that do not de ne or present as a disorder gt People are usually known as eccentric or just strange but not necessarily having disorder 0 Deviating from cultural norms can also change de nition of disorder gt In some cultures hearing voices might be considered normal during ceremonies but a disorder if it occurs at other times gt There are cultures where hearing voices no matter what is considered like a disorder like in the Western world Abnormal Behavior De ned An Accepted De nition 0 quotbehavioral psychological or biological dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with present distress and impairment in functioning or increased risk of suffering death pain or impairmentquot no single de nition of psychological abnormality because no single de nition of psychological normality The Science of Psychopathology Many kinds of professionals working in psychopathology 0 Clinical and Counseling psychologists gt Clinical psychologists treat severe psychological disorders gt Counseling psychologists treat issues encountered by relatively healthy individuals 0 Psychiatrists gt Have an MD with a speciality in psychiatry gt Many emphasize drugs and biological treatment some also use psychosocial methods 0 Psychiatric Social Workers gt Focus on treating social and family problems associated with disorders 0 Psychiatric nurses gt Specialize in care and treatment of patients with psychological disorders 0 Marriage and Family therapists 0 Mental Health Counselors gt Many are now scientistpractitioners 1 Keep up with latest technology and methods in their eld 0 consumers of the science of psychopathology 2 Evaluate their procedures and assessments to see if they work not only for patients but for insurance companies and government agencies 0 evaluator of the science of psychopathology 3 Conduct research to describe psychological disorders determine their causes and to treat the disorders 0 creator of the science of psychopathology Clinical Description 0 First the patient39s presenting problem is identi ed and described 0 This is used in determining the clinical description 0 Other statistical data such as prevalence and incidence can also be useful to know 0 Describe onset of disorder gt DSM describes diseases same as physical disease but keep in mindthey are not gt acute vs insidious onset 0 Most disorders also follow a course either gt chronic ie schizophrenia lasts whole life gt episodic ie mood disorders recovery within few weeks months years gt timelimited will improve without treatment in short period of time o Anticipated course of a disorder is known to be prognosis gt good vs guarded Causation Treatment and Outcome 0 Etiology 0 Treatment development gt Pharmacological gt Psychosocial gt and or combined treatments 0 Treatment outcome research Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior The Supernatural Tradition quotGoodquot vs Evil 0 When behavior was inexplicable in the past it was blamed on demons witches the devil etc o Treatments included executions torture beatings and crude surgeries 0 Now the Roman Catholic Church requires all healthcare resources to be tried and used before spiritual solutions can be executed Mass Hysteria 0 Saint Vitus39s Dance and Tarantism Modern mass hysteria o Emotion contagion o Mob psychology The moon and the Stars 0 Paracelsus and lunacy The Biological Tradition Belief that mental disorders can be treated as any other disorder or physical disease Humoral Theory of Disorders 0 HippocraticGalenic approach and understanding of mental disorders 0 Said there are four bodily uids or humors gt Blood heart black bilespleen yellow bileliver and phlegmbrain gt Disease resulted in too much or too little of one of these humors 0 Early stages to believing that psychological disorders are related to imbalances of chemicals in the brain The 19th Century 0 Syphillis gt Discovery of the cause of Syphillis a sexually transmitted microorganism that enters the brain changed views of psychological disorders tremendously Germ theory of 1870 facilitated the discovery of the microorganism John P Grey 0 He said that causes of insanity are always physical and biological 0 Therefore patients should be treated as if they are physically ill good rest plenty of uids proper room temperature etc 0 Grey improved conditions in hospitals but also caused overcrowding in mental hospitals Biological approach lead to future humane conditions and a better understanding but lead to a failure and elimination of treatment because disorders were deemed incurable The Psychological Tradition The rise of moral therapy 0 More humane treatment of institutionalized patients 0 Encourage and reinforced social interaction Proponents of moral therapy 0 Philippe Pinel and J eanBaptiste Pussin 0 Benjamin rush led reforms in US 0 Dorothea Dix mental hygiene movement 0 William Tuke followed Pinel39s lead in England Asylum reform and the decline of moral therapy 0 Hospitals gradually lled with patients they could not help because success rate was about 70 of patients admitted Emergence of competing alternative psychological models 196039s 0 Patients who are in hospital jail or asylum known as combination of those two are inpatient and seemingly are in need of some protection from others and possibly themselves 0 As alternative to asylums or hospitals people took care of family ie grandparents stayed in attic o by 196039s gt families stopped being multigenerational and there was no room to take care of senile members gt Older quotcrazyquot or disabled members were sent to nursing homes gt Younger quotcrazyquot or disabled members were sent to asylums known as quotbinsquot 0 Late 196039s gt researchers found drug to keep patients free of orid psychosis phenothiazine drugs gt researchers also found that patients can come back to communities with kind members and good reputations gt Many patients became homeless due to lack of funding 0 Like they were in the 18th century gt Patients were exploited in many unimaginable ways Psychoanalytic Theory 0 Hysteria gt quotHysteriaquot was a psychological condition that mimicked physical disorders gt When a physical reason for a disease could not be found for a female patient hysteria became the diagnosis gt btw many women diagnosed as hysteric has undiagnosed physical illnesses eg undetected cancer carpal tunnel syndrome gt Charcot Charcot used hypnosis to work with patients with hysteria and Freud worked with him for a few months gt Freud Worked with Breuer and discovered unconscious mind through hypnosis 0 Also believed that it39s therapeutic to recall emotional trauma 0 The release of emotional material is known as catharsis opened a private practice of ce Jews were generally excluded from such jobs Freud never actively treated psychotic patients 0 Freud quickly abandoned hypnosis for his quottalking curequot Freud theorized that a psychological con ict would go away if the con ict became conscious he ire as a x larger quot quotw39vi J l i ig mn t n lag J39lp39mmm 1 aggpo C Moral onsmence principles lntrapsychlc 39 Logical Reality con icts 11 rational principle Illogical Pl emotional 5338 irrational pr39nc39p e believed that physical symptoms would only emerge from this kind of con ict if it were left unexpressed or unconscious gt The con icts between social norms and sexual urges Sexual desires were frequently expressed Women could not masturbate which made everything worse gt These early ideas stayed around and underlay much of his later work Took basic theories formulated by Breuer and created the psychoanalytical model 0 Psychoanalytical Theory gt Function of the Mind Unconscious Catharsis Psychoanalytical model gt Structure of the Mind Id 0 Part of mind that is the source of our strong sexual and aggressive feelings or energies o Pleasure principle illogical emotional irrational tries to maximize pleasure and eliminate tension Ego 0 Reality principle logical and rational purpose is to keep balance between id and superego Counteracts the impulsive id by being our secondary process through logic and reason Superego Consciousness that nagging voice when you know you39re doing something wrong 0 Moral principle purpose is to counteract potentially dangerous id there can be a lot of con ict When these three parts of brain don39t work how they39re supposed to ie ego cannot control id or superego and one overtakes then that is the basis for psychological disorders 0 These con icts are called intrapsychic con icts gt Defense Mechanisms The ego ghts a continuous battle with id and superego to stay at the top Occasionally these con icts cause anxiety 0 Anxiety alerts the ego to put up defense mechanisms gt Displacement You39re angry at your professor but instead yell at your dog because your dog does not have power to adversely affect you redirect your anger gt Denial Refusal to accept or acknowledge apparent truth gt Projection Falsely associating your own feelings impulses or thoughts to another individual or object gt Rationalization Hiding the true motivation behind actions through elaborate reassuring but incorrect explanations gt Repression Blocking out disturbing thoughts experiences or wishes from the conscious awareness gt Sublimination Redirecting anxiety in a socially acceptable way such as doing more work 0 Psychosexual Stages of Development gt Oral stage birth gt age 2 focus on need for food gt Anal gt Phallic age 3 gt age 6 characterized by early genital stimulation Oedipus complex sexual attraction to mother and jealousy of father 0 This is said to be controlled by fear of castration by the father if father nds out o Passes uneventfully if maintains ambivalent relationship with parents gt Latency gt Gential 0 Later Developments in Psychoanalytic Theory gt Anna Freud Sigmund Freud39s daughter Concentrated on how the ego and defense mechanisms determined behavior ego psychology selfpsychology Thought that abnormal behavior develops when the ego is inef cient in regulating functions such as regulating impulses and proper defense mechanisms b Object relations theory Study of how children incorporate images memories and sometimes the values of a person to whom they were or are emotionally attached Introjected objects incorporation of important people into self of child can become an integrated part of the ego and cause con ict in determining identity or self gt Departures from Freudian thought Jung Adler Reich Horney Fromm and Erickson Rejected many sexual aspects of Freud theory Had idea of collective unconscious Often emphasized development over life span Erikson in uence of culture and society Horney and Fromm spiritual and religious drives Jung and Adler Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy The quottalkingquot cure gt have patients talk about problems gt Techniques Free association 0 Let the patients speak whatever comes to mind 0 Intended to reveal information that may be repressed from being too painful to bring into consciousness Dream analysis 0 Therapist interprets content of dreams 0 Goal is to help patients gain insight into nature of con icts gt Examine transference and countertransference issues Transference when a patient relates to therapist as they would when they were children to an authority gure teacher or parent Countertransference therapists project their own feelings onto patient usually positive gt Psychodynamic psychotherapy use a mixture of tactics focus on affect and the expression of patients39 emotions exploration of patients39 attempts to avoid topics or hinder the progress of therapy identi cation of patterns in patients39 actions thoughts feelings experiences and relationships an emphasis on past experiences a focus on interpersonal experiences an emphasis on the therapeutic relationship exploration of patients39 wishes dreams or fantasies gt Little evidence for ef cacy gt Little attempt to nd evidence for ef cacy Humanistic Theory 0 Maslow and Rogers 0 Humanistic psychology movement emphasized selfactualizing Humans could reach highest potential if given room for grth o Maslow39s hierarchy of needs gt Maslow hypothesized that we can only move up the hierarchy once the lower level is complete highest level is selfactualization love and selfesteem 0 Rogers b personcentered therapy the therapist takes a passive role making no interpretations unconditional positive regard o This theory made of more use to those without psychological disorders Beginnings of Behavior Therapy 0 Classical conditioning gt a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a response so that response becomes learned 0 Joseph Wolpe b systematic desensitization technique involved introducing patients to objects or situations they feared little by little so they could see their fear extinguish gt Arnold Lazarus also worked on desensitization and broader imagery techniques as well 0 Operant Conditioning gt BF Skinner Thorndike gt This is a type of learning where behavior changes according to what happens after that particular behavior aka reinforcement as a reward 0 Behavior therapy tended to be timelimited and direct 0 Book suggests there is a lot of evidence supporting ef cacy but Prof Karlin says it is limited An Integrated Approach 0 Unidimensional accounts of psychopathology are incomplete o Psychopathology is determined by many factors together not just one gt Must consider biological psychological social and experiential factors 0 De ning abnormal behavior gt complex multifaceted and has evolved over centuries


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