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# PHIL 1200

Ohio

GPA 3.9

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## 34

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1 review

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###### Class Notes

##### Anthropology 1010- Diane Ciekawy Introduction to Cultural Anthropology

###### Haley Anglin

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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maureen M. on Thursday February 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Ohio University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.

## Reviews for PHIL 1200

The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Maureen for help in class!

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Date Created: 02/12/15

PHIL1200 Lectures 12 Argument a set of statements one of which is a conclusion that is claimed to follow from or supported by the other statements called the premises 0 Ex We should boycott that company They have been found guilty of producing widgets that they knew were faulty and that caused numerous injuries Statement 0 A sentence that makes a claim 0 Has one of two truth values true or false 0 Compare 0 Is the door open question The door is open exclamation Close the door now command The door is open statement OOO Recognizing Arguments Arguments contain premises in support of a conclusion 0 Conclusion and premise indicators help us identify arguments 0 Ex Since they have been found guilty of producing widgets that they knew were faulty and that caused numerous injuries we should therefore boycott that company 0 Look in the book for conclusion and premise indicators Checking Your Understanding 131 N Pick out premises amp conclusions 0 Ex Buy an Apple instead of a Windows computer because Apple computers have more features for graphic artists and you are a graphic artist 0 Answer 0 Premise because Apple computers have more features for graphic artistsquot and you are a graphic artistquot 0 Conclusion buy an Applequot instead of a Windows computer 0 Q9 p 11 Ex It is true that 145 and it is also true that 235 Thus we can conclude with certainty that 14 23 0 Answer 0 Premise It is true that 145quot and 235quot 0 Conclusion 14 23 conclusion indicators thus and we can conclude 132 N Determine whether the passage contains arguments 0 Ex You should buy an iPad instead of a Notebook You should also buy a Honda instead of a Toyota and a Vizio television instead of a Sony 0 Answer 0 Not an argument These statements do not offer support for the truth of a particular claim Q10 p 13 Ex Income tax revenues help pay for many important social programs and without that money some of the programs would have to be eliminated If this happens many adults and children will suffer needlessly That is why everyone individuals and corporations should not cheat on their income taxes 0 Answer 0 This contains an argument The conclusion is that everyone should not cheat on their income taxes and the premise is that income taxes help pay for many important social programs Truth and Logic 0 Truth value analysis 0 Determines if the information in the premises is accurate correct or true It is raining true of false statement 0 Logical analysis 0 Determines the strength with which the premises support the conclusion on the assumption that the premises are true Premises a It is raining b When it rains games are usually cancelled Conclusion Therefore the game is probably cancelled Deductive and Inductive Arguments Deductive argument 0 One in which it is claimed that The conclusion follows necessarily from the premises True premises make it impossible for the conclusion to be false Inductive argument 0 One in which it is claimed that The premises make the conclusion probable True premises make it improbable for the conclusion to be false 0 Identifying Deductive and Inductive Arguments 0 Look for key wordsphrases Deductive necessarily certainty definitely Inductive probably likely unlikely plausible 0 Check strength of argument Deductive conclusion necessarily Check Your Understanding 1E 0 Determine if the argument is deductive or inductive Ex Most college freshmen have parttime jobs Sue is a college freshman Thus Sue has a parttime job 0 Answer Inductive most students If the premises are true then it is probably true that Sue has a parttime job However the conclusion can be false since we are told only that most college freshmen have parttime jobs 0 Compare deductive All college freshmen hae parttime jobs Sue is a college freshman Thus Sue has a parttime job If the premises are true then it follows necessarily that Sue has a parttime job Deductive Arguments Validity and Truth 0 Logical analysis tells us whether a deductive argument is valid or invalid 0 Valid deductive argument true premises make it impossible for the conclusion to be false 0 Invalid deductive argument even if the premises are true it is still possible for the conclusion to be false 0 Truth analysis tells us whether a deductive argument is sound or unsound 0 Sound argument the argument is valid and the premises are in fact true 0 Unsound argument the argument is invalid or at least one premise is false 0 Logical form symbolization helps to reveal the logical form of an argument 0 Valid argument All beagles are clogs All dogs are mammals All beagles are mammals REVIEW 0 All dogs are cats All cats are snakes All dogs are snakes o All D are C All C are S All D are S Is this valid Why 0 It is valid 0 No dogs are snakes No dogs are cats No snakes are cats NoDareSNoDareCNoSareC o This is invalid Even if the premises are true the conclusion can still be false 0 No cats are beagles No cats are dogs No beagles are dogs 0 Because it s possible for the conclusion to be false even if the premises are true Deductive Arguments Validity and Truth Caution o Validity is a property of the FORM of an argument 0 Valid deductive argument true premises make it impossible for the conclusion to be false 0 Invalid deductive argument even if the premises are true it is still possible for the conclusion to be false 0 Sound argument the argument is valid and the premises are in fact true 0 Unsound argument the argument is invalid something here that I missed Inductive Arguments Strength and Truth 0 Logical analysis tes whether an inductive argument is strong or weak 0 Strong inductive argument true premises make it probably that the conclusion is true 0 Weak inductive argument true premises make it improbable that the conclusion is true 0 Logical analysis of inductive arguments uses probabilistic considerations 0 An opaque jar contains exactly 100 marbles There are 99 blue marbles in the jar There is 1 red marble in the jar The marble picked is blue 9 STRONG 0 An opaque jar contains exactly 100 marbles There are 99 blue marbles in the jar There is 1 red marble in the jar The marble picked is red 9 WEAK Check Your Understanding 1G Determine if the inductive argument is strong or weak 0 Ex Most politicians are liars Madison is a liar Thus she is a politician 0 Answer Weak Even if both premises are true they do not support the probably truth of the conclusion 0 Ex Shane tossed a coin 10 times and in each it came up heads Therefore the next toss will be tails 0 Answer Weak The past sequence of tosses of a coin does not influence the probability of heads or tails in the future This is an example of the gambler s fallacy to be discussed in week 9 0 Ex Most antibiotics are effective for treating bacterial infections You have a bacterial infection You are taking the antibiotic Q Thus the antibiotic you are taking will be effective in treating your bacterial infection 0 Answer Strong If the premises are true the conclusion is likely to be true Inductive Arguments Strength and Truth 0 Recall o Inductive argument One in which it is claimed that n The premises make the conclusion probable a True premises make it improbably for the conclusion to be false 0 To properly analyze inductive arguments the concept of probability is useful

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