Nutrition for Health
Nutrition for Health
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This 8 page Reader was uploaded by Brittnee Zuckerman on Friday April 11, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 310 views.
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Date Created: 04/11/14
ESS 3 NUTRITION FOR HEALTH Spring Quarter 2014 331 amyjamiesonessrucsbedu Learning Objectives Understanding the study of Nutrition Defining wellness Introduce the 6 basic nutrients What is a healthful diet Popular Diets in 2014 most Googled Paleo diet leaves out legumes dairy products and grains Iuice cleanse diet slows metabolism limiting Mediterranean diet low in saturated fat somewhat healthy Master cleanse diet low in calories causing tiredness and fainting Ketegonic diet high fatlow carbs induces ketosis Okinawa diet low in calories but increased nutritional value somewhat healthy Fruitarian diet can cause nutrient deficiencies Omnivore diet somewhat healthy Etc What is Nutrition Nutrition is the science that studies food and how food nourishes our body and in uences our health Nutrition includes how we consume digest metabolize and store nutrients Nutrition science studies the factors that in uence our eating patterns make recommendations about what and how much we should eat Nutrition science addresses issues related to food safety and global food supply Why is Nutrition Important Wellness The absence of disease along with physical emotional and spiritual health Nutrition contributes to wellness Critical components of wellness 0 Nutrition o Physical activity Wellness is a multidimensional lifelong process that includes physical spiritual emotional social and occupational health Nutrition plays a role in the development of many diseases Nutrition plays some role in osteoporosis osteoarthritis cancer Nutrition plays strong role in type 2 diabetes heart disease obesity high blood pressure Nutrition causes scurvy etc Health Continuum Illness signs symptoms disability 9 Wellness awareness education growth Continuum Due to National Institute of Health research our nation is gaining about one year of longevity every six years 3 most common causes of death from greatest to least 1 Heart disease 2 Cancer 3 Stroke Nutrients Chemicals found in foods that are critical to human growth and function Six Groups of Essential Nutrients 1 Carbohydrates most available energy 2 Fats reserve energy 3 Proteins emergency energy 4 Vitamins 5 Minerals 6 Water Macronutrients Carbohydrates Fats and Proteins Macronutrients are nutrients that our bodies need in relatively large amounts to support natural health They give our bodies the most energy Carbohydrates Primary fuel source for our bodies particularly for the brain and for physical exercise 4 kcal gram Fiber rich foods Grains Fruits Vegetables Legumes Seeds Dairy products Fats Important energy source for our body at rest and during low intensity exercise Fats yield more energy per gram than carbohydrates 9 kcal Solid fats butter lard margarine Liquid fats oils Proteins provide energy but are not a primary source Macronutrients that the body uses to build tissue and regulate body functions Meats Dairy products Nuts Seeds Legumes Micronutrients Vitamins minerals and nutrients needed in relatively small amounts to support normal health and body functions Water is a nutrient vital for our survival We consume water in its pure form in juices soups and other liquids in solid foods fruits and vegetables Adequate water intake ensures proper balance of uid both inside and outside our cells What is a Healthful Diet 1 The proper combination of energy and nutrients Adequate provides enough energy nutrients and fiber to maintain a person39s health Moderate eating the right amounts of foods to maintain a healthy weight and to optimize our body39s functioning Balanced contains the combination of foods that provide the proper proportion of nutrients Varied eating different food each day Allows us to optimize our chances of consuming the multitude of nutrients our body meats Avoid boredom and getting into a food rut Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs The lists of dietary standards in both the US and Canada for healthy people Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA The average daily nutrient intake level that meets the nutrient requirements of 9798 of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group RDA Intake A recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people Used when an RDA is unavailable Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL The highest average daily nutrient intake level is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group There is not enough research Estimated Energy Requirement EER The average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult EER considers a person39s level of physical activity EER is higher for an active person is higher than the EER for an inactive person Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR Range of intakes for particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk for chronic disease while providing adequate intake of essential nutrients 42 Vegetables Vary your vegetables Eat dark green and orange vegetables as well as dry beans and peas Eat at least 2 12 cups of vegetables each day Fruits Eat a great variety of fruits fresh frozen or dried Eat at least 112 cups of fruit every day Dairy Foods Eat calcium rich foods Choose low fat or fat free dairy products such as milk yogurt and cheese Get 3 cups of low fat dairy food or the equivalent each day Alternatives lactose free products soy or rice beverages Protein Foods Go lean with protein Choose low fat or lean meats and poultry Switch to baking broiling or grilling more often Vary your choices include fish soy beans nuts and seeds legumes beans peas and lentils Eat about 512 oz oflean protein foods per day Empty Calories Calories from solid fats and or solid sugars that provide few or no nutrients Cakes cookies pastries doughnuts soft drinks fruit drinks etc Desserts candies and alcohol USDA recommends that you limit the empty calories to a small number Serving Size USDA Ounce equiva1ent a term used to define a serving size that is 1 ounce or equivalent to an ounce for the grains section and the protein foods section of MyPlate Serving size as defined in USDA food patterns may not be equal to a serving size identified on a food label Serving sizes in restaurants have grown substantially in past 30 years Super Sizing Phenomenon indicates a major shift in accepting eating behaviors and rise in obesity Ethnic Variations of MyPyramid MyPlate is replacing MyPyramid but still needs to work on ethnic variations Objectives 1 Students will be able to define and classify hunger appetite and eating triggers 2 Students will gain an understanding of the process of digestion 3 Students will learn to identify disorders related to specific foods food allergies food intolerances Why do we eat Hunger the physiological drive for food that occurs when our body senses that we need to eat A variety of foods could satisfy you The brain produces the sensation of hunger The prompt to eat is given by the hypothalamus in the brain The hypothalamus triggers feelings of hunger or satiation fullness by signals from 3 sources 1 Nerve cells 2 Hormones 3 The amount and type of food we eat The role of nerve cells The nerve cells lining your stomach and small intestine detect changes in pressure according to whether the organ is empty or full The nerve cells relay the information to the hypothalamus which prompts you to feel hunger Hormones why we want to eat Chemicals produced in specialized glands that travel in the bloodstream to target organs in other parts of the body Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted into the bloodstream by one of the many glands of the body Insulin and glucagon are two hormones responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels Glucose is our body39s most readily available fuel supply When we have not eaten for a while blood glucose levels are low prompting a change in levels of insulin and glucagon The message is sent to the hypothalamus which prompts hunger Some hormones are specific to stimulate food intake Some hormones produce a feeling of satiety The role of amount and type of food Research shows that foods containing protein have the highest satiety value Another factor affecting hunger is how bulky the meal is how much fiber and water is in the food Bulky meals stretch the stomach which sends signals back to the hypothalamus telling us we are full so we stop eating Appetite a psychological desire to consume specific foods It is aroused when environmental cues stimulate your senses triggering pleasant emotions and memories Appetite triggers Sensory data foods stimulate our 5 senses 1 Food appearances color shape 2 Food aroma 3 Sweetness of foods 4 Texture of foods 5 Sound of foods eaten or prepared Role of social and cultural cues 1 Social events trigger appetite Events give us permission to eat more than usual or eat forbidden foods Location triggers appetite movie theater Activities trigger appetite studying Emotional events external events stressors con icts S rl S Food Preference is a learned response Introduction to foods can happen at any point in life 1 Change in location culture 2 Travel 3 Education about healthy and non healthy foods Atoms Our body is made of atoms Atoms are the smallest units of matter Atoms bind together to form groups called molecules Every bite of food we eat is composed of molecules The actions of digestion break food down into molecules small enough to be transported in the bloodstream and cross into our cells Cells Cells are the smallest units of life Cells can grow and reproduce themselves take in nutrients and excrete waste Cells of a single type join together to form tissues Several types of tissues join together to form organs Organs are sophisticated structures that perform a unique body function Organs are grouped together into systems that perform integrated function The GI Tract The Gastrointestinal Tract is a long tube beginning at the mouth and ending at the anus Adult GI track is close to 30 feet long It is composed of mouth esophagus stomach small intestine and large intestine Digestion takes place here Digestion The process by which foods are broken down into their component molecules Digestion includes the breaking down of food 1 Mechanically 2 Chemically Absorption the process of taking the products of digestion through the wall of the intestine Molecules of food are taken from the GI tract into the body Elimination the process by which the undigested portions of food and waste products are removed from the body The Mouth Digestion begins in the mouth 1 Bite and chew moistens the food and breaks it down into pieces small enough to swallow 2 Saliva and salivary glands begin the process of chemical digestion Contains Salivary amylase enzyme that assists the body in digesting and absorbing food 3 Enzymes chemicals usually proteins that induce chemical changes in other substances to speed up body processes Chewing breaks up food and begins mechanical digestion Salivary amylase begins chemical breakdown of carbohydrates Minimal digestion takes place in the mouth
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