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BIO 240 Week 2 Notes

by: Miriam Valenzuela

BIO 240 Week 2 Notes BIO 240

Miriam Valenzuela
GPA 3.81
Second Semester Biology
Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin

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These are the second week of notes. They include everything from Evolution, Natural Selection, what we learned about Cladograms and Phylogenies. Overall very informative and a lot of vocabulary wor...
Second Semester Biology
Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miriam Valenzuela on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 240 at San Francisco State University taught by Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Second Semester Biology in Biology at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 02/13/15
BIOLOGY 240 WEEK 2 NOTES 020215 Lecture 1 Evolution Change in allele frequency through time Mutation Types Point Insertion Deletion lnverting etc Evolution happens through Mutations Nonrandom Mating Natural Selection Genetic Drift Founder Effect new colony started by small number of people from original colony Bottleneck Effect population decreases significantly only a handful on individuals and then increases limitation in gene pool change in gene frequency Adaptive Radiation adapting to local habitats and evolve into new species Ex Sea Star Wasting Syndrome densovirus causes the starfish to develop muscle atrophy their limbs fall off and they dissolve mass death of all these starfish bottleneck effect lmmigration transfer of alleles into a population Emigration transfer of alleles out of a population Evolution by natural selection is a combination of chance mutations and sorting natural selection Natural Selection acts on the phenotype indirectly on genotype Adaptive Evolution gradually over time Reproductive Success morphology physiology behavior Relative Fitness the contribution of an individual to a gene pool leaving your combination of alleles Modes of Natural Selection Directional Selection when selection favors individuals exhibiting one extreme of phenotype Disruptive Selection when selection favors individuals at both extreme of phenotype than intermediate Stabilizing Selection acts against both extremes and favors the intermediates Preservation for Genetic Variation Diplody Two sets of chromosomes Heterozygote Advantage When heterozygotes have higher fitness than homozygotes sickle cell anemia 020415 Lecture 2 1 Genetic drift explains change in allele frequency due to Chance Events 2 Microevolution may result from mutation gene flow genetic drift Diploidy Nucleus structure inside cell Double membrane Genetic material is stored in the form of chromosomes Heterozygous Advantage Ex Sickle Cell Anemia Malaria Resistance lncrease chances of survival than both homozygotes Sickle Cell Anemia dd Sickle Cell Anemia No hemoglobin Dd No Sickle Cell Anemia because of the dominant allele Protected against malaria some normal hemoglobin but not enough for virus to survive DD Normal amounts of hemoglobin allowing the virus to use it for development Taxonomy Identification and classification of organisms following the rules of nomenclature Phylogeny the study of the way different organisms evolved through time Systematics the study of phylogeny while thinking of biodiversity as a byproduct of evolution Taxon The term a specific unit name at any level Three Objectives of Systematics 1 Define character and limit species 2 Organize species into categories 3 Let taxonomic structure reflect phylogeny the evolution through time Macroscopic Organ MicroscopicTissue Biochemic Chemical Pathway Molecular Base pair protein sequences Developmental Patterns of development Phylogenetic Trees Reflect hierarchical classification of groups nested within more specific groups Cladogram potential relationship between different organisms The juncture between the branches of one organism and another is significant to having a common ancestor and the relative distance between organisms is also suggestive of how closely related they are Monoohyletic taxon that includes ancestors and descendents Paraphyletic taxon including ancestors and some but not all descendents Polyphyleltic taxon including species derived from more than one recent ancestor Apomorphic derived character Plesiomorphic primitive character Analogy When a characteristic evolves independently from different ancestors Homologous characteristic that evolved from common ancestor The more homologous parts two species share the more closely related they are Shared Derived Character features or characteristics unique to a particular clade Shared Primitive Character features or characteristics found only in the clade that s in ques on Analyzing a taxonomic distribution of homologies and homologous structures helps identify the order in which characteristics arose throughout evolution A cladogram represents the chronological sequence of branching throughout history Does not indicate the specific time of origin but illustrates the relationship between closely related species Parsimony


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