Week 5 Lecture Notes
Week 5 Lecture Notes CJ 100
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt Owens on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 257 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Matt Owens Intro to Criminal justice February 10 2015 Types of Crime Visible Crime Street Crimesquot Majority of law enforcement resources Three categories 0 1 Violent Crimes o 2 Property Crimes o 3 Public Order Crimes Violent Crimes Physical injury or death is a result 0 To be considered violent crime there must be an injury death or threat of such Uniform Crime Report UCR 0 Murder and nonnegligent voluntary manslaughter o Forcible Rape 0 Robbery o Aggravated Assault 0 1 Murder and nonnegligent voluntary manslaughter o Willful nonnegligent killing of one human being by another intent is present 0 First Degree Murder Premeditated intentional killings felony murder commission of a violent felony I Examples Skylar puts arsenic in Walt s soup and increases the dosage until it s fatal 0 Second Degree Murder Unplanned death of a victim was distinct possibility reckless action I Examples Drunk driving kill somebody Skylar shoots at Walt but it ricochets and hits the woman he is with 0 Voluntary Manslaughter Intentional killing in which the offender had no prior consent not premeditated to kill heat of passionquot I Examples Somebody killing his lover and somebody she s having an affair with when he catches them heat of the moment Skylar walks in on Walt having an affair with a woman she grabs a gun and shoots them both 0 2 Forcible Rape o Carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will 0 Update FBI has changed the definition to include males and not just to include just forcible unconscious physically or mentally disabled drugs alcohol etc 3 Robbery o The taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care custody or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and or by putting the victim in fear 0 Different from burglary property crime 0 4 Aggravated Assault 0 Unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of in icting severe or aggravated bodily injury I Assault Threat of violence pulling fist back in preparation to punch somebody I Battery Violence connecting the punch Property Crimes The object of the thefttype offenses is the taking of money or property m there is no force or threat of force against the victims 1 Burglary o The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft 0 To classify an offense as a burglary the use of force to gain entry need not have occurred does not need force to be defined as burglary 0 Can be charged with multiple offenses can be charged with burglary AND robbery 2 Larcenytheft o The unlawful taking carrying leading or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another 0 Examples I Thefts of bikes motor vehicle PARTS and accessories shoplifting pocketpicking or the stealing of any property or article that is not taken by force and violence or by fraud 3 Motor Vehicle Theft 0 Stealing a motor vehicle 0 Pretty straight forward 4 Arson 0 Any willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn with or without intent to defraud a dwelling house public building motor vehicle or aircraft personal property of another etc Public Order Crimes Acts that threaten the general wellbeing of society and challenge accepted moral principles Examples 0 Public drunkenness panhandling vandalism and disorderly conduct Concern with these minor offenses is that they will lead to more serious crimes and hasten urban decay Victimology Examines the impact of crimes on victims Doesn t get much attention in the C system 1 Who is victimized 0 Demographics play a key factor age and income 0 Lifestyle exposure model factors places times and people I Places you go and the people you go withwhere you hangout affect how likely you are to be a victim 2 The Impact of Crime 0 All of us pay for crime ex Higher taxes insurance premiums fear etc 0 Economic costs lost property lower productivity 0 Psychological and emotional costs pain trauma etc 0 Operating the Criminal Justice system remember the total annual cost of crime 3 The Role of Victims in Crime 0 Victims play a key role in many crimes positive or negative roles 0 Negative Not taking proper precautions provoke or entice crime and some victims are not willing to help with the prosecution or investigation 0 Positive Selfdefense training good decisions etc Matt Owens Intro to Criminal Justice February 11 2015 Criminology Criminology What is the study of criminology 0 Scientific study of criminal behavior 0 Draws from sociology psychology biology and law 0 Why do people commit crimes The Demonic Perspective of Crime The dominant theory of crime was the demonic perspectivequot up until the mid 1700s Crime was said to be the result of supernatural forces 0 Spirits demons etc Punishments during this time period were very harsh o Torture severe beatings execution burning them alive drowning them etc The Shift Away from the Demonic Perspective The Age of Enlightenment 0 Using science to explain different things 0 Used to explain why people engaged in criminal activity Cultural movement aimed at promoting rational though while opposing superstitions Major in uence in the American Revolution and the Bill of Rights 0 Direct correlation to the protection against cruel and unusual punishment Classical Criminology Classical School Classical Criminology was a product of the Age of Enlightenment First attempt to explain crime through scientific terms Cesare Beccaria was the first and most prominent Classical Criminologistquot with his work An Essay on Crimes and Punishments 1764 0 Behind the classical school of knowledge Ideas of Classical Criminology 0 Individuals are rational beings rational choices 0 Maximize pleasure and minimize pain costbenefit 0 Crime is committed through FREE WILL Not by evil spirits 0 Unless individuals are deterred they will commit crimes specific vs general deterrence I You have to have punishments harsh enough that they deter crime Cause people to not want to risk it I Specific Deterrence Targeting an individual that has already been involved in the criminal justice system Somebody that lived in prison and it was so harsh that when he was freed he would never want to risk going there again I General Deterrence Targeting the general public Keeping the public from wanting to commit crimes by intimidation of prison scared straight program 0 Classical theory focuses on natural forces that can be observed absence of effective punishments more crime Three Main Elements 0 1 Swiftness of Punishment I If you commit a crime you need to immediately have punishment 0 2 Certainty of Punishment I Knowing that punishment is certain no matter status 0 3 Severity of Punishment I Knowing what the risks are and how bad the sentencing can be 0 Blind Justice 0 Law applies to equally to EVERYONE Problems with Classical Criminology There are aws but it still receives a large amount of credibility Are all people rational o No mentally ill juveniles etc Lombroso and the Positive School Argued many criminals were genetic throwbacksquot Primitive people are stuck in modern society 0 Criminals are different from noncriminals Only 2 types of people criminal and noncriminal o No free Will Determinism Idea that most human behavior is determined by factors beyond free will and free choice Lombroso s idea of the born criminalquot The theory did not last for long but for a short time it did gain a lot of support First attempt at a biological approach with crime Lombroso developed a list of physical traits 0 Large jaws and cheekbones o Swollen or protruding lips 0 Arm span greater than the individual s height 0 Excessive wrinkling Emergence of the concept of a born criminalquot Led to a lot of racial profiling Classical vs Positive 34 test questions on this topic Classical School Individuals freely choose to engage in crime Positive School Criminals have no choice in their actions Problems with the Positive School After Lombroso IQ Testing Era Still focused on individual differences early 1900s Intelligence Quotientquot IQ developed by Alfred Binet France Binet said IQ could be changed and used to help slow learners 0 Could produce more productive people in society IQ Testing United States HH Goddard IQ used to deport incapacitate sterilize and target lowIQ individuals early eugenics Goddard believed that IQ could not be changed static innate genetic o If somebody with low IQ had children before they were sterilized their children should be sterilized as well Labeled a lowIQ as feeblemindedness Dark part of American history Goddard s FeebleMindednessquot 0 Three subgroups for lowIQ individuals high to low I 1 Morons I 2 Imbeciles I 3 quotIdiotsquot 0 According to Goddard the biggest threat of the progress of humanity were the morons I Imbeciles and idiots were not smart enough to live in society and would not produce 0 Goddard s work resulted in mass sterilization Supreme Court Weighs In 0 Buck v Bell 1927 Discussed the issue of sterilizing lowIQ individuals o Upheld the use of sterilization for the purposes of limiting reproduction who were deemed feeblemindedquot protection and health of statequot 0 Sterilization over IQscores continued until the 1970s 0 This ruling has never been overturned BodyType Theory 0 Mid1940s William Sheldon Model of Somatotyping Somatotyping Links body type to risk for delinquent and criminal behavior 0 1 Endomorph jollylazy o 2 Mesomorph risktakingaggressive I Central research focused on mesomorphs o 3 Ectomorph introverted shy Was SOME empirical evidence to support this but ultimately it was awed Travis Hirschi and IQ 1970s Examined the effect of intelligence on youths Findings Even among youths in the same race and social class intelligence has a significant effect on delinquency and criminality Study showed IQs of delinquents or criminals are about 10 points lower than those of noncriminal 0 Especially in verbal skills Rise of Sociological Theories Growth of cities and industry urbanization Social changes were implicated in the rise in crime Forces outside individual control resulted in criminal behavior environmental factors Social Disorganization in the City Social change was very rapid Chicago as a case study 0 1833 Population of about 4000 o 1890 About 1 million 0 1910 About 2 million Most people worked in factories and lived in crowded living arrangements Upton Sinclair The jungle 1905 Matt Owens Intro to Criminal Justice February 13 2015 History of Criminology University of Chicago Research Understanding crime was not an individual basis but studying the collective group sociological approach 0 Sociological theories look at the group and the environmental context of things Researches focused on traits of neighborhoods in Chicago 0 Why the crime in neighborhoods varied 0 People changed but crime remained relatively constant implying there was an environmental factor Ernest Burgess Concentric Zone Modelquot 0 Zone 2 is the zone of transition I Factory workers I Population constantly changing Social Disorganization o Breakdown of the social institutions in a community causes crime 0 Poverty rapid population growth transiency etc o Iuveniles were especially impacted gangs vice activities etc o Learned criminal behavior Edwin Sutherland What the Research Showed 0 Crime was higher in the Zone in Transitionquot zone 2 0 Rates of crime by area remained relatively stable 0 Meaning that characteristics of the areas neighborhoods not individuals regulated crime 0 Findings led to the Differential Association Theory Learning to be a Criminal Differential Association Theory Criminal behavior is learned through interactions with others engaging in crime 0 Edwin Sutherland 1947 An excess of definitions favorable to the violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of lawquot New Biological Theories Focus on a broader range of biological factors Genetic inheritance head injuries exposure to toxins and birth complications No single quotcrimequot gene Contribute to traits conducive to crime impulsivity violence etc Adrian Raine 0 Neurocriminology 0 Anatomy of Violencequot 0 There are genes that raise the chance that somebody will become a violent criminal 0 Risk factors I Prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption I Malnutrition o 90 of homicides committed by men why I Men have lower resting heart rates I Higher testosterone I Prefrontal cortex effects reduced in men Molecular Genetics Examines variations in genes 0 MAOA Gene Warrior Gene 0 Low activity in MAOA gene may lead to aggressive and violent behavior 0 Not a DIRECT link to criminal activity but is loosely correlated o Monoamine oxidase A Environmental Toxins Chemical substances and heavy metals aggressive behavior Research has shown that boys with high amounts of lead in their bones had more reports of aggressive and delinquent behaviors o Gasoline used to be leaded 0 Lead in atmosphere from gas paint etc 0 High density lead areas seem to be high density crime areas 0 Correlation Diet and Crime Behavioral issues can stem from deficiencies in o 1 Omega 3 fatty acids 0 2 Magnesium hyperactive behavior 0 3 Zinc hyperactive behavior
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