Ecology Week 6 Notes
Ecology Week 6 Notes BIOSC 0370
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shannon Kiss on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOSC 0370 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Anthony Bledsoe in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Ecology Week 6 Notes 2 Habitat Selection behavioral choice of whether or not to live in a certain place Ex Anopheles mosquitos 0 Breed in rice fields in India 0 Scientists noticed that mosquitos only were breeding on short stems in the fields 0 Did a transplant experiment put the eggs on tall stems put control on short stems 0 Treatment and control groups did equally well in terms of hatching success 0 Reasoning Short stems stood up straight Tall ones opped over one another to form a canopy Females in past had trouble with the tall canopies Heritable behavior of small stems evolved Directional 3 Biotic Interactions that limit distribution Predation 0 Ex common mussel Mussels are abundant in the open coast With small bodies Only some live in the Lough Ine Lough inland area of salt water connected to the open ocean by a narrow passage Large mussels live here only on steep rock slopes and streams that enter the lough Transplant experiment put mussels from open coast to where they didn t grow in Lough All treatment individuals died within 48 hours Now did an exclosure experiment keep mussels excluded from predators Treatment individuals did perfectly fine Biotic factor is limiting predator crab Why do they occur on stream and steep rocks Crabs couldn t reach the steep rocks Crabs can t tolerate low salinity in the river Why are loche mussels larger Open coast has heavy waves Couldn t efficiently feed Can feed fine in the Loche coast Crabs are sensitive to heavy wave action so are not in the open ocean 0 Ex Desmognathus salamanders I Two species North Dusky salamanders and Mountain Dusky salamanders I Observed zonation North dusky occur in the stream and on the stream banks and Mountain Dusky occur on the slopes in the ravines I One day researcher Nelson Hairston Sr picked up a North Dusky salamander and observed it throw up a Mountain Dusky salamander I Concluded North Dusky prefers the stream banks Excludes the mountain dusky from the stream banks through predation Moutain Dusky uses a suboptimal habitat Disease and Parasites 0 Ex Chestnut blight I Dominant species produces chestnuts that were used by many organisms I A fungus killed all trees to make them ecologically extinct a few remained with rare exception I Fungus came to North American from Eurasia I Unfortunate inadvertent transplant experiment d Temperature and development Developmental time degreedays 0 Time for development expressed with relation to temperature 0 Equation Developmental time Celsiusdaystime days avg ambient temp threshold temp for development 60C days time days 7C 5C Solving for time Time 30 days e Temperature limitation To demonstrate 0 Determine the most sensitive phase of life cycle I Corollary of Shelford s Law of the minimum 0 Determine the range of tolerances during this phase 0 Correlate microclimate tolerance and distribution data I Correlation does not lead to causation 0 Establish cause and effect by experimental manipulation I Example Eastern phoebe a bird y catcher 4C avg Ian minimum temperature and Northern limit correlation I Example wild madder 4C average temperature f Interaction of temperature with other factors Example blackcapped chickadee O O 0 Die of hypothermia in their holes before morning If there was more food they could get more to make it through the night If daylight were longer they d have more food to make it through the night I Then they could go farther North Temperature is a cause in their death but all these factors are involved in the Northern limit g Implications under global warming Example American beech O O O 2 Moisture Distribution southern and northern controlled by temperature Earth is warming global warming Measure American beech dispersal limit with pollen profiles I Record of pollen in sediments in ponds to see how far they moved North after last glacial periods About 12 kilometer a year Predict American beech would be unlikely to colonize new populations as it is going extinct As a condition 0 Most aquatic organisms As a resource 0 Terrestrial plants Annual precipitation O 0 Highest at equator across the year on average Lowest at subtropical deserts and the polar regions across the year on average Subtropical subsidence O 0000 O 0 Warm moist air at the equator will rise far up into the atmosphere I Maxes out at about 70000 feet As air rises the temperature goes down As air cools water vapor condenses Condensed water falls back to Earth as rain Air subsides at and around the tropics and becomes increasingly warm I Will split some will go toward the equator and some will go away from the equator Hot deserts 2330 degrees north and south Hadley Cells Evaporation and transpiration O O Temperaturedependent Crucial processes for both plants and animals Temperaturemoisture interactions 0 Example loblolly pine and winter drought Demography I Cold soil temperatures in winter and needles of pine I Winter drought I Stomata are open transpiration evaporation occurring I Losing water not picking up water from ground I Can kill the tree Definition study of vital statistics birth rate death rate that affect a population s size Survivorship and fecundity O O Survivorship the age based pattern of survival Fecundity agebases reproductive output I Ecological concept Fertility capacity to breed I Physiological concept Lifetable I Agebased table summary of mortality in a population Fecundity schedule I Agebased table summary of reproductive output of a population Life tables I Cohort lifetable follow single cohort from birth to death Cohort group born in the same short time interval I Vital statistics X Nx lx dx qx 0 200 1 04 04 1 120 6 01 017 2 100 5 04 08 3 20 1 005 050 4 10 05 004 080 5 5 001 001 100 6 0 0 1x proportion of the original cohort surviving to start of stage or age x lxNxNo dx proportion of the original cohort dying during stage or age x dx Nx Nx1No Mortality statistic overall magnitude of mortality qx proportion of the individuals entering stage x that die in stage or age x qx Nx Nx 1 Nx Mortality statistic that re ects the age passed probability of mortality age or stage specific intensity