Psych 355 week of notes
Psych 355 week of notes PSY 355
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 355 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Kristy Dean in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Psychology & Culture in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Psychology & Culture Notes Class #32 SES & Physical Health o Allostatic load- cumulative wear & tear on the body due to chronic stress o But not all people that grow up in low SES households display this pattern. How are they coping? Shift-and-persist hypothesis o Shift-and-persist hypothesis Shifting involves adapting the self to the situation (secondary control) Ex: cognitive appraisal Persisting involves focusing on the future Aids in behavioral persisting These strategies fit with low SES experiences When COMBINED buffer against the effects of low SES on allostatic load Immigration & Health o The stress of immigration Adjustment, prejudice & discrimination However, the “Latino epidemiological paradox” o Video: “Unnatural Causes” segment “Becoming American” Class #33 Mental Health o Normal vs Abnormal Across Cultures Are syndromes evident across cultures? Is prevalence similar across cultures? If differences arise, why? Are symptoms/causes similar across cultures? If differences arise, why? Relatedly, when are differences significant enough to call a disorder “culture-bound” vs a specific type of “universal” disorder? What are the characteristics of a disorder? Deviation from normal Impairment Distress o “Universal” Syndromes Major depressive disorder Prevalence across cultures Similarity of symptoms? o Psychologization Depressed mood most of day Diminished interest/pleasure in nearly all daily activities? Feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate/excessive guilt o Somatization Significant weight loss/gain Insomnia/hypersomnia Fatigue or loss of energy Kleiman’s (1982) examination of neurasthenia patients in China o Used outdated diagnosis for patients who would be diagnosed with major depressive disorder in U.S. o Most patients showed more physical symptoms o *difference in manifestation of symptoms Why these differences in symptoms across cultures? Because of cultural differences in… o U.S. tend to be more open about our personal emotions, other countries don’t o Social costs of having a mental illness Degree of stigmatization Effect on social (dis)harmony o What symptoms people notice Internal vs external focus Physical ailments create secondary psychological symptoms; thus sadness is implied vs explicitly communicated o Emphasis on the mind-body connection Xinhuang (“heart panic”), xinlei (“heart exhausted”) Class #34 Universal syndromes o Social anxiety disorder Symptoms? Prevalence across cultures? Social anxiety concerns more pronounced in East Asia o INT/social harmony associated with social anxiety o Higher rating on questionnaires o Symptoms perceived less negatively (more normative) Ex: it’s normal to be anxious for a presentation BUT more Americans diagnosed with SAD Why this discrepancy? People in the U.S. see it as less normal People in collectivistic cultures are more accustomed to social interactions & possibly being evaluated Why the discrepancy between SA concerns & diagnosis in East Asia? Different social norms for communication o U.S.= direct o Asia= not very direct/more indirect Different tolerance thresholds Difference in symptoms In the U.S. preoccupation with embarrassing self in front of others In japan, additional preoccupation with offending or harming others o Misperceptions re: sweating/body odor o Concern re: direct eye contact Culture-Bound Syndromes o Amok Occurring in Malaysia, but also Puerto Rico… Characterized by… Brooding (social withdrawal, negative mood) Homicidal frenzy (& automatism) “beyond their control” Amnesia Etiology (causes)? No credible resources/research Negative events (loss, insult), lack of sleep, alcohol, malarial fever…?? Cultural restrictions on behavior Nonconfrontational behavior encouraged Islam & suicide discouraged Concerns for honor/respect, dominance o Is amok really culture-bound? Why does amok occur in SE Asia? Could these factors exist elsewhere? Cultural restrictions on behavior? Concerns for honor/respect, dominance? Is this a “universal” disorder and the culture is influencing how/why it is manifesting? Depression? Dissociative disorder? Schizophrenia?