Psychology 105 - Higginbotham
Psychology 105 - Higginbotham Psych 105- Intro to Psychology
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Psych 105- Intro to Psychology
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Silverman on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105- Intro to Psychology at Washington State University taught by Jessica Higginbotham in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Psych 105 in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
2915 Consciousness Attention The spotlight Consciousness What isvisible Attention 1 Limited Capacity a Size of focus size of spotlight 2 Selective a Cocktail party effect gt Even if you re in a conversation with someone at a party and someone says your name in another conversation no matter what else is going on you can still hear it and recognize it 3 Can be blind a Misdirection gt might not realize big picture b lnattentional blindness gt Looking without actually seeing i deafness too gt ex she may be lecturing and our ears will be on and we hear it but we don t know what shes saying Hearing without listening c Change blindness gt attentions focused on one thing and something else might change ex in video guy s asking for directions on a map and switches with someone else The Dangers of Divided Attention MultiTasking Division of attention Different tasks demand different types of attentionusually Circadian Rhythms Circa dia about one day Cyclical daily fluctuations in biological and psychological processes that are about 24 hrs long in humans The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus In Hypothalamus The master clock gt some people can t sleep in That s because some people s circadian rhythms are really constant and entrained Responsive to light gt when sun comes up hormones are released and it tells you it s time to get up entertainment Alertness body temperature sensitivity to pain sleepiness stress etc Circadian Rhythms Freerunning Clocks 242 hours gt naturally your body will run on a 242 hour clock If you are blind or stuck in a dark cave or something this is the time your body will run on phase advance vs delay gt if someone comes into your room at 5 am everyday and turns on the lights for a while and then leaves eventually your body will wake up closer to this time everyday If you have blackout curtains Amplitude strength gt people who aren t able to sleep in on the weekends your amplitude strength is really good People who work 3rd shifts at work in the middle of the night or are depressed or elderly their amplitude strength is low Shift workers elderly blind depression Social jetlag gt Chronotype Perhaps one person functions best if they wake up at 8 am and go to bed at 1pm Some function better if they wake up at 5 am and go to bed at 10 pm If someone is a night person and has 8 am class they are not going to function well Desynchronized quot risk for obesity alcoholcaffeinenicotine use depression stress Better Circadian Rhythms Better at different things during different parts of the day Chronotype gt morning or night person matching your schedule up to that Sleep hygiene gt getting in a routine before you go to bed taking away any light sources before you go to bed not a hot and stuffy room etc Meals gt eating regular meals at the same time everyday and not too close to when you go to bed Exercise gt a good amount of exercise but not too close to when you go to bed because it may make you want to go to bed later Light exposure Electroencephalogram EEG Synchronic brain waves Polysomnogram EMG muscle tension EOG eye movement temp BP HR REM rapid eye movement sleep vs NREM non rem Sleep Architecture Image in book 21115 iCIicker What sleep stage are you in when you are dreaming Stage 1 NREM Stage 2 NREM Stage 3 NREM Stage 4 NREM Stage 5 REM Sleep I m Tired l m sleepy adenosine Yawning Heightens awareness Contagious Beta waves 155th Alpha waves 812hz Hypnagogic Hallucinations Vivid sensory phenomena occurring during onset of sleep ex falling and having to catch yourself Myconic jerks Sleep is Synchronized A typical 8 hour sleep cycle Go through the cycle multiple times Start awake stages 14 deepest stages of sleep then come back up brief period of REM position changes after the REM cycle Cycles are about 90 minutes Frequency of REM is more and more throughout the night Position changes may synchronize with your partner if you sleep with someone This means synchronized REM cycles NREM Stage 1 45 of the night spent in this stage 48 hz theta There is a mixture of alpha and theta brain waves in this stage Slow Eye Movements SEMS Reduced muscle tone ex yourjaw dropping Some twitching Transition between waking and sleeping NREM Stage 2 Sleep spindles K complexes theta brain waves and beginnings of delta waves 4455 of the night spent in this stage the most 415hz theta Spindles brief periods of really high frequency in the EEG K Complexes big spikes in amplitude in the EEG Reduced body temp HR BP Memory Consolidation synaptic pruning No eye movement NREM Stage 3SWS Mixture of theta and delta brain waves slow wave sleep 46 of the night spent in this stage 24 hz Spindles and slow waves lt50 Delta Emergence of deep sleep Slow wave sleep SWS Restorative NREM Stage 3 and 4 are very very similar but in 3 there is less that 50 delta waves seen on the EEG NREM Stage 4SWS Delta brain waves High amplitude and low frequency waves in the EEG 1215 of the night spent in this stage 052 hz high amplitude Very deep sleep Hard to wake Cell repair restoration hormone release short bursts of activity but they all happen together Sleepwalking in this stage Lowest body temp BP HR and breathing m muscle atonia free to move about REM Sleep 2025 of the night spent in this stage 1530 hz Paradoxical Sleep Wakelike EEG EEG looks like you are awake very similar Dreams Increase in BP HR breathing Muscle Atonia cannot move REM Behavior Disorder when you don t have this muscle atonia dream REM sleep gt free to act out your dreams Functions of REM sleep iCIicker Consolidation of procedural and spatial memories Defensive immobilization pretending to be dead Stimulation of CNS development and proper function Creative inspiration due to feedback of high levels of ACh in the hippocampus M We don t really know but these are the four main theories Without REM Increased attempts to go into REM sleep REM rebound Anxiety Hallucinations lrritability Increased appetite Difficulty concentrating REM vs NREM PET scan pictures ACh acetylcholine threshold promotes REM ACh peaks triggers NE norepinephrine and 5HT serotonin NE and 5HT suppress REM NREM resumes Sleep Changes as We Age Younger you spend a lot of time in slow wave sleep A lot of time sleeping in general Older slow wave sleep decreases as well as the overall time you spend asleep Wakefulness after you sleep increases as you age Older folks have a harder time sleeping Why Sleep at All Restoration Rejuvenation Allows muscles and body to rest immune function Learning consolidation Improved brain function Regulation of moods and emotions Evolutionary Adaptation Effects of Sleep Deprivation chart of body Acute vs Chronic lrritability Cognitive impairment Memory lapses or loss Impaired moral judgement Severe yawning Hallucinations Symptoms similar to ADHD lmpaired immune system Risk of diabetes type 2 Increased heart rate variability Risk of heart disease Decreased reaction time and accuracy Tremors Aches Growth suppression Risk of obesity Decreased temperature What is the record for the longest time without sleep A 3 days 23 minutes B 6 days 13 minutes C 11 days 24 minutes D 16 days 8 minutes 21315 Dreams vs Sleep Thinking Sleep thinking NREM Vague ruminations Real life Dreaming REM Emotions thoughts sequential 90 will say they are dreaming if woken during REM Forming Memories Episodic Memories NREM Procedural Memories how to do things NREM 2 REM We think Sleep reactivates and reconsolidates our memories from the day helping solidify them Why are dreams alwaysso weird Easier to remember Research shows the vast majority of dreams consist of everyday stuf About 20 dream in BampW Men dream about other men Half of people have experienced a lucid dream Negative content The blind dream toojust differently Mundane activities rarely appear The Interpretation of Dreams 1900 Manifest Content Consciously experienced remembered by the dreamer Latent Content Unconscious wishes thoughts urges Freud thought that dreams were just the fulfillment of repressed wishes The ActivationSynthesis Model of Dreaming Green activated Purple inactivated blocked lllogical because no frontal lobe PFC The Neurocognitive Model of Dreaming Cut off from external sensory stimuli Unable to control thought processes thoughts take shape of dreams Day dreaming Dreams mimic waking concerns Sleep Disorders 1 Abnormal sleep patterns consistently occur 2 Subjective distress 3 Interfere with daytime functioning 7 out of 10 people experience regular sleep disruptions Dyssomnia Disruptions in the amount quality or timing of sleep Parasomnia Undesirable physical arousal behaviors or events during sleep s it pathological Less than 7 min to sleep More than 30 min to sleep Daytime sleepiness fatigue impaired social or occupational performance mood disturbances Persistent symptoms DYSSOMNIAS Insomnia Insomnia Inability to fall asleep stay asleep or feel rested after sleep Transient 1 in 3 people Lasts a couple nights to a couple weeks Chronic 110 people 3 nights a week for a month or longer Etiology Hyperarousal stress environment anxiety tructive Sleep Apnea OSA Blocked airways cause repeated pauses in breathing CO2 levels rise 300 awakenings each night Snoring overweight daytime grogginess poor concentration memory and learning problems irritability Etiology Excessive alcohol use obesity atypical airway Treatment CPAP continuous positive airway pressure Narcolepsy Narcolepsy Excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day Symptoms Microsleeps Automatic Behavior 70 cataplexy Emotional excitement causes paralysis Etiology Orexin deficiency hypothalamus Problems staying awake AND sleeping Treatment Stimulantstranquilizers Parasomnias Lack of awareness while performing actions Arousal during SWS More common in children Genetic susceptibility Etiology sleep deprivation stress erratic sleep schedules sleep meds stimulants pregnancy tranquilizers Sleep Night Terrors Night Terrors Different than a nightmare during nightmare you are in REM sleep and won t move like you do in night terrors 1st few hours during SW8 Increased physiological arousal Appear awake thrashing terrified disoriented Single unpleasant sensation Short duration No recollection
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