Sociology 101- Chapter 10 Notes
Sociology 101- Chapter 10 Notes SOC101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Counce on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lesley Williams Reid in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Rachel Counce February 12 2015 Sociology 101 Exam 2 Chapter 10 O Sosial Stratifisation a system by which a society ranks categories of people in hierarchy O 1 2 3 4 Social Stratification is a trait of society not simply a re ection of individual differences Social stratification carries over from generation to generation Social stratification is universal but variable Social stratification involves not just inequality but beliefs as well Soclal Structure Sosial mobiliw a change in position within the social hierarchy O Social stratification is found everywhere but exactly what is unequal and the degree of inequality differ from society to society O Historically societies only gained social stratification after the advancement of complex technology ex hunting and gathering society vs 2014 0 Closed system caste systems gt open systems class systems O Caste system social stratification based on ascription or birth agrarian societies 1 2 3 4 Determines the direction of a person s life at birth perform one type of work Demands that people marry others of the same ranking endogamous within Guides everyday life by keeping people in the company of their own kindquot Rest on powerful cultural beliefs O Class system social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement Categorizing people by their sex color or social backgrounds is seen as 0 wrong Work is not fixed at birth and involves personal choice Families can have different social standings Rachel Counce February 12 2015 O Meritoeraey social stratification based on personal merit 0 Expand equality of opportunity and teach people to expect unequal rewards based on individual performance O Social differentiation division of labor gt social inequality unequal access to valued resources and positions gt social stratification 0 Formal vs Informal 0 Open vs Closed 0 Ascribed vs Achieved O Functionalist theories of stratification Marx DavisMoore Function Differential Occupational Rewards Rank Scarcity Inequality ta39ent training O Critique of Functionalist theory 1 Undiscovered talent no opportunity to move up 2 Access to training but don t hold the talent for specific job 3 Training requires sacrifice 4 How differential do the rewards have to be 5 Supports the status quo O States eoosisteoey degree of uniformity in a person s social standing across various dimensions of social inequality O Structural social mobility a shift in the social positions of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts O ideology cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements including patterns of inequality 0 Marx criticized inequality as compared to Plato o Plato believed every culture considered some type of inequality as just 0 Reason that social hierarchies endure for so long O DavismMoore thesis states that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society 0 Some form of social stratification has been found in every society O O 0 Rachel Counce 0 February 12 2015 Increases society s productive efficiency more important positions require higher rewards to draw talented people to those jobs not let anybody do any job ie a surgeon Those who have jobs with the greatest functional important gain the most rewards According to the structuralfunction approach social stratification plays a vital role in the operation of society Socialcon ict analysis argues that rather than benefiting society as a whole social stratification benefits some people and disadvantages others 0 O Drawn on ideas of Karl Marx Explained two basic relationships to the idea of production either own property or are laborers Supports overthrowing capitalist society arguing that it reproduces the class structure in each generation passing wealth down from generation to generation Believed a socialist society would replace capitalism tending to the needs of many rather than an elite few Marx believed that need should form the basis of rewards given to people in a society Criticism of Marxism 1 Denies a central idea of the DavisMoore theory system of unequal rewards is necessary to place talented people in the right jobs and to motivate them to work hard 2 Revolutionary change Marx predicted has not happened in advanced capitalist societies No Marxist revolution according to Ralf Dahrendorf 1 Fragmentation of the capitalist class ability to hold stocks 2 Higher standard of living most people hold whitecollar j obs 3 More worker organizations allowed to hold strikes labor unions etc 4 Greater legal protections safer unemployment insurance disability and Social Security Haemcollac occapatioas lower prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor Whitemcollar occapatioas higher prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity Maer Labor Theow of Valae in order to make a profit there must be a difference in the cost of materials and the cost of labor ie paying a worker 1 for every 2 products that are sold at 1 a piece 1 profit 0 Don t get paid more for working harder class con ict Rachel Counce February 12 2015 O Counterpoint how Marxism theory is still relevant 1 Wealth remains highly concentrated 2 Many of today s white collar jobs offer no more security income or satisfaction than factory work a century ago 3 Many workers feel stressed by high unemployment companies moving overseas company downsizing and job benefits being cut 4 The income and benefits that today s workers do receive come about through the class con ict Marx described 5 Although workers have legal protections ordinary people still have disadvantages 9 Max Weber Differences from Marx O Viewpoint on class position did not think of classes as well defined categories but rather as a continuum ranging from high to low Multidimensional ranking First dimension class position Second dimension status Third dimension power Each dimension stands out at different evolutionary points in society s growth gocioeconomic status SEES refer to a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality Marx thought societies could eliminate social stratification by taking away private ownership overthrowing capitalistic ideas but weber doubted that overthrowing capitalism would significantly lessen social stratification O Kuznets Curve 0 Technological advances first increase and then moderate the extent of social stratification Agrarian societies greater inequality is functional Industrial societies benefit from a more equal society Curve reverse itself as greater equality comes about Broken line represents the postindustrial society in which economic inequality increased Criticisms Income inequality re ects not only technological development but also political and economic priorities of a country This curve was developed by comparing societies at different levels of economic development
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