Psych Week of 2/9/15 Notes
Psych Week of 2/9/15 Notes 0010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Spencer Poston on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Cynthia Lausberg in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Intro to Psych 21015 and 21215 Notes Psychoactive Drug Use cont from consciousness Characteristics Tolerance can determine if the person has taken the drug multiple times orjust one isolated incidence o Withdrawal occurs when the person stops taking the drug symptoms vary with substance 0 Dependence o Physical cravings pain 0 Psychological negative emotions anxiety Stimulants speed up body functions caffeine cocaine meth Depressants slow down body functions alcohol barbiturates Narcotics suppress sensations and mimic endorphins heroine morphine Hallucinogens distort perceptions causing hallucinations LSD ecstasy PCP Learning De nition relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience Implicit learning without quottryingquot just observing and picking up behavior Explicit making an active attempt to learn something Association Learning Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning relationship between two stimuli BF Skinner Operant Conditioning consequences of behavior Stimulus something in the environment Response something that an organism dog human rat etc does Consequence happens after the response only in operant Stimulusstimulus learning learning to associate one stimulus with another Ex Associating the sight of lightning with the sound of thunder Resoonseconseduence learning learning to associate a response with a consequence Ex Getting money for doing a job Pavlov and Classical Conditioning He noticed his dogs would salivate before food was even presented Pavlov hypothesized that the dogs were associating sounds with the food Unconditioned Stimulus elicits Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Response occurs due to presentation of unconditioned stimulus No learning involved This is automatic Neutral stimulus does not elicit unconditioned response alone without conditioning During conditioning Sound NS paired with food UCS lsalivation UCR After conditioning Neutral Stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus CS and produces conditioned response CR Tone CSSalivation CR Now the dog will salivate only at the sound without food NS Acquisition initial stage in conditioning NS must come before UCS Time between NC and UCS must be brief about 5 second Putting it together 1 Before conditioning bell makes no response 2 During conditioning bell plus food causes salivation 3 After conditioning bell alone causes salivation Spontaneous Recovery after a break in the experiment the conditioned response still occurs Stimulus generalization tendency to respond to a stimulus similar to the CS Stimulus discrimination distinguishing between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal an UCS ex Dog salivates to Csharp note but not B at note Higherorder Conditioning a CS becomes associated with another stimulus and the second stimulus elicits the CR Conditioning of Fear john Watson and Little Albert Unconditioned stimulus loud noises pots and pans Neutral stimulus white rat Noise Rat l fear Eventually showing only the rat without making any noise was enough to make Albert cry Counterconditioning quotunlearningquot of a conditioned response Edward Thorndike and Trial and Error Law of Effect responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences will be repeated basis of modern operant conditioning BF Skinner strict beha viorist Major operant conditioner voluntary behavior Focused only on observable measurable behavior 0 Learning depends on consequences Summary of his Work Skinner would reward a speci c movement or action with food At rst the pigeon would repeat this action by accident but the more positive reinforcement was given the more consistently the pigeon would do the action Reinforcement something that follows a behavior that strengthens it Primary reinforcers innately we don t have to learn them reinforcing Secondarv reinforcers get their power due to association with primary reinforcer money Positive reinforcementl39ladd something pleasurable Ex You clean your room get dessert Negative reinforcementl39ltake something away that is unpleasant Ex You clean your room you don t have to do a different chore Schedules of Learning Variable Ratio given reinforcement after a different number of times Fixed Ratio given reinforcement after a set number of times Variable Interval given reinforcement after a different period of time Fixed Interval given reinforcement after a xed amount of time getting paid every 2 weeks Punishment behavior or response followed by an unpleasant consequence The intent is to reduce the behavior Positive punishment add something undesirable Ex Getting a parking ticket for not paying the meter Neqative punishment take something away that is desirable Ex Getting TV privileges taken away after yelling at a parent Problems with punishment 0 Fear anxiety Avoidance 0 Modeling of aggression Shaping reinforcing quotsuccessive approximationsquot to reach a target behavior Good for learning a complex behavior in small steps at a time Behavior Modi cation Token economv providing small reinforcements that can be saved and later used for a bigger reinforcement rewarding small good behaviors with stickers that can later go towards a bigger reward Applications of operant conditioning Parenting positive reinforcement for desirable behaviors ignore undesirable behaviors Education shape learning in small steps token economy 0 Sports principles of reinforcement used to enhance performance Workplace reinforcers in uence productivity Biofeedback controlling involuntary responses eg blood pressure via biological feedback Neurofeedbackmodifying behavior via brainscanning Cognitive Learning Theory 0 Early learning theory 0 1950 s and 1960 s increased focus on mental events cognition Edward Tolman Latent Learning 0 Mental representations 0 Learning without obvious reinforcement learning without quottryingquot to learn 0 Cognitive maps Martin Seligman Learned Helplessness Learned helplessness tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures Albert Bandura Observational Learning 0 Based on social environment Modeling we learn by observing other people s behavior Bobo doll experiment 1951 had children watch an adult playing gently with a doll and another group of children watch the adult behave aggressively with the doll He then put children in a room with the doll individually and observed how they treated the doll based on which adult they observed
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