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Chapter7 book notes

by: Gabriela Saint-Louis

Chapter7 book notes PSYC_3150_10

Gabriela Saint-Louis
GPA 3.04
Psychology of Sex Differences

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About this Document

Notes from Chapter 7! Chapter 11 to follow
Psychology of Sex Differences
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC_3150_10 at George Washington University taught by Forssell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sex Differences in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/13/15
chapter 7 Attraction Dating and Hooking up Attraction key points recognize the role that beauty plays in choosing partners compare universal and subjective standards of beauty catalogue what is considered attractive with regard to symmetry skin hair eyes height weight and age consider the efforts that people make to improve their appearance studies have shown that when people of different ethnicities cultures and sexual orientations rate the attractiveness of others there is a high ddegree of agreement in their assessments o attractive features and youth signal physical and reproductive tness people may seek attractive partners because of the genetic advantages that will be passed on to their children Universal Signs of Beautv Evolutionary theory suggests universal ideal of beauty are related to attributes that will impact the greatest reproductive advantages 0 signs of female beauty are often correlated with youth and fertility a blend of young features and maturef o man39s attractiveness is related to the degree to which his face gives the impression of dominance assertiveness or leadership oval or rectangular shaped face deep set eyes with heavy brow ridges and prominent chins Hormones shape our beauty and affect how we rate beauty in others Symmetry physical symmetry is thought to be a sing of attractiveness and reproductive health such appreciation for symmetry seems to be universal uctuating symmetry factors such as mutations toxins and poor nutrition can alter a person39s development and decrease the symmetry of their bilateral traits studies suggest women selectively prefermore symmetrical and masculine appearing men near ovulation but not at other times Most facial features are not truly symmetrical 0 right hemisphere of the brain which is mre involved with emotions and facial feature recognition controls the left side of the face while the left hemisphere involved in speech and language controls the right side of the face 0 when speaking most people therefore make larger movements 0 the right side of their face ad the left side of the face is more involved when making facial expressions Averageness Hair Eyes Judigh Langlois and Lori Roggman digitally produced a series of composite faces Hypothesized that the average of a population represents the optimal design of physical traits fuller lips and smaller lowerjaw smooth clear skin is a visible sign of health and youth skin color varies with age and sex as well as race 0 when we are young a new layer of skin appears every 2 weeks but as we age we no longer replace dead cells as rapidly 0 Women tend to be paler and have lighter skin than men due to lower levels of hemoglobin in the blood and melanin in the skin it lightens during ovulation and becomes darker when pregnant or on birth control pills o fairer skin is often valued even among African American population even though darker skin has more melanin which protects against UV light damange and skin cancer environmental factors can have adverse effects on one s skin 0 ciagerrete smoke constricts blood vessels and increases breakdown of collagen and elastin producing more wrinkles earlier gray hair and more baldness tanning damages skin when exposed to UV rays skin tries to shield itself by producing more melanin which does not protect skin from cancer but causes ski to thicken healthy hair has been considered a sigh of female beauty and male power 0 SamsonDelilah o cultures covering women39s hair perception in Western society that men prefer blondes o perhaps blond hair in adults gives the impression of youth and increased fertility associated with it infants and children often have lighter hair and skin blondes clearly advertise their health and fertility A person39s eyes clearly signal interest in others 0 When a person is sexually aroused his or her pupils enlarge large clear widely spaced eyes with arched eyebrows attractive in women deeply set eyes and at lower set eyebrows considered handsome in men HEigm in Western culture women prefer men that are taller than them and men prefer women that are shorter than them man s height can impact his earning potential 0 O 0 Weight the average height for men in he Unied States is 5 ft 9 inches more than 50 of fortune 500 company CEOs are over 6 feet tall one study shows men over 6 feet tall earned 4000 more than men who were 5395 the taller candidate has won in 68 of presidential elections since 1900 Western society holds slenderness in highest regard not true in all cultures 0 O O E many societies revere a plumper female form crosscultural analysis places where food is scarce heavier women are thought to be more beautiful because body fat is an indication of wealth and rsperity In US where high calorie food is abundant and supersized portions are the nrm the slim female body is considered most attractive BMI and WHR waist hipratio Hourglass shape in women may be a sign of health and fertility because hormones play an important role in determining the waistto hip ratio Estrogen increases WHR and testosterone increases the ration estrogen increases deposition of fat around the buttocks and this dif cult to lose as nature designed it so fat remains there as a potential energy store for pregnancy small waist popular Youth is considered more of a premium for women perhaps because a woman39s reproductive abiity ends decades before a man39s when there is great discrepancy in age between partners the older usuay male often brings wealth andor power to the relationship while the younger brings youth and beauty Sexualization Across the life span sexualization occurs when any of the following is present 0 O O a person39s value comes only from his or her sex appeal a person is portrayed as an object for other39s sexual pleasure rather than as a selfgoverning individual a person is held to a narrowly de ned standard of physical attractiveness sexuality is inappropriately imposed upon a person sexualization has negative effects on a person39s academic achievement physical health and emotional wellbeing o selfobjecti cation girls who are frequently exposed to sexualized images of women and young girls begin to think of and treat their bodies as objects of others39 desire detracts from a girl39s ability to concentrate and focus attention and may result impaired performance in school Pheromones men previously exposed to female pheromones rates women as more attractive compared to men who were not exposed to the chemical human leukocyte antingens major histocompatibility complex HLAMHC 0 human leukocyte antigens are a series of genes that play an important role in the immune system by coding for proteins that differentiate self from nonself because there are so many HLA proteins no individual carries a complete set and it is advantageous t pick a partner with different HLA genes so as to give your offspring the ability to recognize and destroy a wide variety of invading organisms The HLA also in uences both body odors and body odor perception plain tshirt study 0 women rated body odors from men who differed from them in their HLAas more pleasant than the odors of men with similar HLA by preferring the odors of HLAdissimilar men women help to ensure their offspring have more effective immune systems 0 those on oral contraceptives thought that men with similar HLAs smelled more pleasant Oral contraceptives make the body act as if it is already pregnant women may subconsciously prefer the safety of those who are perceived as carrying similar traits 0 an individual39s gender and sexual orientation may affect his or her body odor preferences when asked to choose heterosexual men heterosexual women and lesbians all preferred the odor of heterosexual men overthat of gay men gay men preferred the odor of tother gay men gay men also preferred the odor of heterosexual eomen to that of lesbians 0 found that gy men responded to steroids in a way similar to heterosexual women and lesbians resonded to steroids in a way similar to heterosexual men The Pursuit of Beautv Diets economy depends on our pursuit of the impossible dream of youth and beauty those who are insecure about their weight their appearance and their desirability are more likely to purchase diet aids and beauty products Media images not only our selfesteem they may also affect our relationships estimated more than 60 billion per year is spent on the weightloss industry most diets fail because 0 human body has evolved to keep weight on not to lose it o yoyo dieting predisposes your body to gain weight which eat diet yo go on you raise your levels of ghrelin a hormone that increases your appetite and makes your body retain fat lifestyle change as opposed to short term weight loss Cosmetics makeup implants and hair dyes are at their core deceitful as they are designed to amplify signlas of fertility such as youth or health more extreme measures foot binding in china outlawed in 1911 small feet perceived as being more feminine women in USgt in 18th19th century wore tight stays or corsets to make waists as small as possible so much they could barely breathe eventually distort the rib cang an other internal organs causing complications and even death Botox spiked heels men steroids How does Appearance affect your life people are nicer to attractive individuals attractive people are treated more favorably in hiring and promotion and experience more occupational success than unattractive people do less attractive people earn lowerthanaverage incomes and beautiful earn above average jurors more likely to believe defense of defendants who were more attractive social expectancy theory suggests our expectations about how we will be treated become a selfful lling prophecy 0 ex if unattractive people are ignored or treated badly they may internalize these judgments and be more reserved or hesitant when meeting someone new people they meet may therefore think them less friendly and treat them accordingly Weight also affects a person39s life 0 recent study asked more than 4000 americans to decide bnetween being obse and other choices rather than be obese 46 would give up a year of life and 15 would give up 10 years of life 305 would rather be divorced 25 would rather be infertile 155 would rater be severely depressed and 5 would rather lose a limb Not all cultures share these anti00besity attitudes but they are prevalent in Western society and are reinforced by the media Body Image Women who participated in the early Kinsey studies were more embarrassed when asked about their weight than when asked about their masturbatory and homosexual experiences weight may be the central determinant of a woman39s assessment of her attractiveness in one study 42 of 58 year old girls desired a thinner body in another 49 of white forugh grade girls believed they were too fat 0 girls39 problems with their body image often worsen with puberty when girls typically gain 2030 of their body weight Whereas women generally want to lose weight men typically want to be larger and more muscular Men generally put more emphasis on the psychical beauty of their partners than women do African American women hold body images that are more positive and are less worried about being or becoming overweight 0 on reason African American men are more likely to accept a woman of higher body weight women are approximately 9 times as likely as men to have an eating disorder 0 though has increased in men 0 Men with eating disorders are more likely to focus on their body shape and type rather than on their weight to irt irtation paves the way fro sexual interactions that can propagate the species irtation behaviors meant to arouse romantic or sexual interest little research about homosexual irting syles reasons people irt 0 increase intimacy in an existing relationship 0 see if someone is interested in beginning a romantic relationship 0 just for fun mee someone must rst attract his or her attention by advertising your phsycial presence gender and willingness to be approached women from all over the world have a consistent irting expression 0 people pay more attention to the face when it is active deadpan face is perceived as unfriendly and unapproachable 0 men assume they are initiating irtation based on them being the rst to approach but really it39s the women who gives the signal via facial expressions and eyes Eye contact is a powerful emotionally loaded way to communicate o prolonged eye contact usually occurs with intense emotions o eyebrow ash very brief lift ot eh eyebrows often accompanies the quick gaze in japan it has clear sexual connotations o nonverbal leakage cue sin a person39s body language that indicate their true emotional state or intentions What to talk about some suggest that what you say is not as important as how you sy it 0 when courting voices get higher softer and more sing songy quot hiiiiiiquot vs quothiquot when speaking you may want to speak into your partner39s left ear sounds from the left year go to the more emotional right hemisphere of the brain Can irtino be misconstrued the place it occurs the type of comment and the effort expended can all affect the perception of irtation 0 ex Downey and Damhave 1991 found that a comment was more likely to be perceived as irtations if it occurred in a bar rather than in a school hallway 0 men are more likely to misconstrue women39s actions such as smiling or complimenting him as irtatious error management theory it is genetically advantageous for men to do so According to Haelton and Buss the genetically advantageous error is for men to risk rejection rather than t risk missing the chance t spread their genes around 0 every culture has formalized processes of courtship the sequence of interactive behaviors by which men and women choose a mate 0 sexual script the socially learned isea of quotproperquot sexual behavior men and women ofthen have different sexual scripts traditionally men are seen as the sexual initiators and women as the quotgatekeepersquot who decide how much sexual activity will occur 0 three possible parts to a date of which at least two must be offered entertainment food and affection Universal Elements of Courtship sharing food is a universal element of courtship 0 man may provide food to his intended to show he can provide for her and any possible offspring whereas a woman may illustrate her nurturance an d caring by cooking for her partner mu5Ic 0 when bodies move in synchrony with each other it is a sign of compatibility and interest courtship todav women and her family used to supervise much aspects of courtship im early mid20th century there was a change in dating styles economic and societal changes made it so a shift in power went to men regarding relationships date going steady falthough male initiative was a key marker of the traditional form of dating men today are less likely to take the initiative to ask out college women traditional dates are much more rare today after students leave college traditional dating becomes more of he norm in social interactions unwanted sexual activitv it is important to differentiate between unwanted sex and nonconsensual sex 0 unwanted sex sex that is willingly consented to although at least one participant may have no sexual interest or motivation to take part in the sexual activity 0 nonconsensual sex also called quotnonconquot involves sexual acts that occur without mutual consent and against the will of one participant samesex datino more similarities than differences with heterosexual dating in addition to the challenges tht all face when trying to nd a partner gays and lesbians have to deal with other dif culties 0 a smaller pool of potential companions and issues related to where they can go safely meet other gays and lesbians 0 people can39t always tell someone else39s oritentation Interracial datino interracial dating more common now than say 50 years ago since miscegenation laws were struck down as unconstitutional there has been a huge increase in interracial marriage and dating 0 miscegenation marrying cohabiting or having sexual relations with a parter of a different race dating and disabilitv dating may be hampered by such barriers as social isolation a diffulty in dning partners or lack of sexual knowledge hooking up ambiguous term either the an or woman may initiate usually with nonverbal cues no real expenses more private and spur of the moment often occurs at the end of the night after drinking sex comes rst ad then dates may occur if a relationsi follows although this is uncommon sexual intimacy is not related to the degree of emotional connection or to the level of commitment alcohol makes people hook up with someone they wouldn39t otherwise be attracted to and fgo farther than they otherwise would ssexually goal sexual grati cation without the commitment also consider FWB 0 women more likely to want a hookup to become a relationhship men are more likely to want it to remain as just sex men hold most power both can iniitate but hooking up is more skewed to what men traditionally want casual sexual encounters than what women want relationships and emotional connection see table on pg 177 for more details and perceptions hookups are not always with strangers friends with bene ts FWB describes the relationship between friends who are physically intimate with each other why people have hookups time constraings avoid hurt and rejection catching feelings pluralistic ignorance occurs when an individual believes that his or her private attitudes are unusual based on the public behavior of others 0 each group member publicly conforms to the norm while believing that he or she is the only one in the group that privately disgress with the prevailing attitudes


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