Week 12 Lecture Notes
Week 12 Lecture Notes BCH 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BCH 110 at University of Montana taught by Scott Samuels in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology for Biochemist in Biology at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Supercoiling of DNA 4/11/16 DNA supercoiling tertiary structure o Coiling of DNA helix around itself o Undertwisting negative supercoil o Overtwisting positive supercoil o Huge structural role Chromatin (packages of Eukaryotic chromosomes) o Building material of eukaryotic chromosomes o Complex of half DNA and half tightly associated protein by mass Histone Nonhistone proteins Very highly compacted Nucleosome o Primary unit of chromatin o Nucleolus has chromosomes o DNA 147 base pairs wrapped around histone octamer st o 1 level of packaging wrapping DNA around histone o Histone has 8 subunits octamer Histone o Small basic proteins o Most abundant chromatin proteins o Highly conserved DNA histone interaction o DNA wrapped around histone octamer o Histones are positively charge and interact with negatively charged DNA backbone o Histone and DNA look kinda like yoyos sugar phosphate backbone of DNA o held together by phosphodiester bonds lycine and argine both are positively charged are common in histone RNA Structure DNA only job is to store genetic information Gene information expressed in central dogma o DNA RNA Protein RNA is central point in process of genetic information flow Translation involves decoder protein RNA has catalytic role in protein synthesis, ribosomes o Peptide bond formation and checking sequence done by RNA Principles of Molecular Biology o Central dogma o DNA info perusing amino acid sequence of proteins o Genes are basic units of information o RNA cellular machinery that links Amino acids in compact sequence RNA and DNA differing o RNA uracil (lacks methyl group on carbon 4), DNA thymine (has methyl group on carbon 4) o RNA ribose sugar and DNA deoxyribose sugar (primed carbons) o RNA usually single stranded, DNA usually double stranded Pyrimidine single ringed, 5 members, Cytosine, thymine an Uracil Purine double ringed, 1 six member and 1 five member, Guanine and adenine Types of RNA o Can encode genetic information for viruses o Retro viruses; double stranded, positive, negative stranded RNA o tRNA, rRNA and mRNA used in translation (protein synthesis) o snRNA used in splicing 3 RNA’s in gene expression o mRNA carries genetic information from DNA (varies in size) o tRNA binds specific amino acid and mRNA o rRNA catalyzes protein synthesis (peptide bond formation) tRNA o smallest of three RNA’s o single stranded polynucleotide o carries amino acid on 3’ end o extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding base pairing rRNA o ribosomes (mostly rRNA) catalyze protein synthesis 6065% rRNA 2 subunits o Bacterial rRNA Homologous to each other 23s and 5s large subunit Many subunits, fold based on base pairs 16s in small subunit o Eukaryotic rRNA 28s, 5.8s, and 5s, large subunit 18s is small subunit mRNA o carries genetic information from DNA to ribosomes for protein synthesis o present in cells small amounts, short lived o single stranded o complementary strand of mRNA synthesized a long strand of DNA, 3’ to 5’ o DNa read from 5’ to 3’ so mRNA reads antiparallel o Extensively processed in eukaryotes Transcription in eukaryotes differs from bacteria o Cellular compounent of transcription and translation are separate o mRNA is processed o chromatin in transcription template Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) o Found in nuelcus of eukaryotes o 100200 nucleotides long o Splicsome catalyzes splicing o Forms complexes with protein (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles) snRNP’s Replication Both semiconservative and semi discontinuous Central dogma DNA RNAprotein, RNA is central to function DNA genetic information of amino acids of proteins via RNA RNA mechanisms that links amino acids DNA directionality orientation of the sugars Double helix o 5’3’ for one strand and 3’ 5’ for second strand o Antiparallel polynucleotide chains o Held together by the pairs between bases, hydrogen bonds o Stacking interactions o Mainly Bform, right handed Complementary Base pairing o Big concept that was discovered by Watson and crick o AT (U) and GC, purines: A, G and pyrimidines: T, U, C Replication o DNA duplication creating new DNA strand as a template for new daughter DNA strands DNA structure and Replication o Each strand acts as a template for copying a new strand which is based on the complementary base pairing o Template DNA strands act as a template for synthesis of new DNA strand (replication) or new RNA (transcription) o Template is complementary not identical to new strand o Depends on sequence of base pairing o The template is always reverse and complementary to the new strand Replication Challenges o Continuous unwinding and separation of the 2DNA strands o Synthesis of 2 DNA strands: 1 from 5’ 3’ and the 1 from 3’5’ o Protection from errors in replication Semiconservative replication o Involves separation of 2 original strands (parent strands) and 2 new strands (daughter strands) o Each daughter DNA strand contains 1 template strand and one newly synthesized strand o Conservative: base on the old ways (strand from parent) o MeselsonStahl experiment: determined type of replication from conservative, semiconservative or dispersive replication
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