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week 1 test 4

by: UNT_Scientist

week 1 test 4 Biol 2041


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About this Document

this covers chapters 14,15,16 and start of 17
Daniel Kunz
Class Notes
Microbiology, kunz, University, Of, North, texas, UNT
25 ?




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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Week 1 April. 11   Test 4   ● Pathology and stuff chapter 14  ○ Pathology   ■ Study of disease  ○ Etiology   ■ Cause of disease  ○ Epidemiology   ■ Occurrence and transmission in a population   ○ Infection   ■ Invasion or colonization by pathogenic (disease causing m/o)  ■ Depends on ​irulence(degree of pathogenici​train relaand host  (expredisposing factors )   ○ Normal flora   ■  Permanent residents that do not cause disease   ■ Relationship between the hose and normal flora is a symbi​pg  one ( 424)  ■ Different types of symbiotic relationships   ● Commensalistic   ○ One benefits other unaffected   ■ +​0  ● Mutualistic   ○ Both benefit   ■ +  +  ● Parasitic   ○ One benefits at the expense of another  ■ +  ­  ● Opportunistic   ○ A non pathogen takes advantage of host   ■ 0  ­   ○ Ex  ■ Pneumocystis pneumonia   ● Once protozoan now consider fungus   ○ Koch’s postulat​pg 407)   ■ A associate organism with disease  ■ Isolate organism from diseased host/ grown in culture   ■ Demonstrate disease upon rein ovulation into healthy host   ■ Re­isolate organism and demonstrate relatedness to original isolate   ● Exceptions   ○ T. palladium   ■ Can’t culture on artificial media   ○ M. leprae  ■ Can’t culture on artificial media   ○ HIV  ■ Postulates satisfied??  ○ Classification of infection disease   ■ Spreading ability   ● Communicable vs noncommunicable   ● Contagious­ ease of communicability   ○ Chicken pox, measles  ■ Frequency of occurrence   ● Incidence   ● Endemic vs Epidemic vs Pandemic (= epidemic of global  proportion)  ■ Severity   ● Acute vs Chronic vs Latent   ■ Extent of oust involvement   ● Local vs Systemic   ●     ○ Transfer from animals to man known​zoonoses   ■ Table 14.2     ○ Nosocomial infection   ■ Fig 14.9   ■   ○ Morbidity and mortality report   ■ Gives latest statistics on nosocomial infections   ○ Epidemiology   ■ When where and how it is transmitted   ● Patterns of disease   ● Occurrence   ● Trends   ○ Education   ○ Eradication measures   ○ Vaccines   ○ Vector transmission   ● Chapter 15  ○ Fig 15.9  ■ Resistance to phagocytosis   ● Capsules   ○ The m protien on the surfacestreptococcus pyogenes  ■ Attachment found on the epithelial cells   ● Cell wall components   ● Enzymes   ○ Invasive enzymes   ■ Homolysis   ■ Hyaluronidases   ● Acts on hyaluronic acid   ■ Coagulase   ● Causes blood to coagulate   ■ Leukocidins  ■ Collagonases   ● Intracellular growth   ● Toxins   ○ Properties   ■ Can disrupt metabolism or protein says this s   ■ 220 known bacterial toxins   ■ Can damage cell membrane   ■ Toxemia­  ● Blood toxin   ■ Septicemia   ● Organisms in body lymph   ■ Bacteria   ● Bacteria in blood   ■ Vericemia   ● Viruses in blood   ○ Table 15.3     ○ Exotoxins  ■ Found in mostly gram­positive bacteria   ■ Secreted by bacteria    ● Cytotoxins   ○ Affects cell physiology   ● Neurotoxins  ○ Affects nerve impulses   ■ Botulinum toxin   ● Enterotoxins  ○ Affects mucus lining of GI tract   ● Erythrogenic toxins   ○ Blood capsul damage on surface of  skin  ○ Endotoxins    ■ Found inside the bacteria   ● Gram negative lips   ○ Progenic responses   ■ fever and rise in body temp   ○ Corynebacterium dipertial   ■ Diphtherotoxin   ● fig 15.5   ■   ● Chapter 16 immunology   ○ ■ Antibodies   ■ Natural immunity  ● SKIN   ○ Most abundant and present form of natural immunity   ● Tears and eyes  ○ Has powerful enzyme to breakdown bacteria cell wall  lysozyme by breaking beta 1­4 linkage   ● Mucus membranes   ● Interferon  ● Naturally occurring phagocyte cell   ○ Leukocyte so (white blood cell)  ○ Lymph system   ■ Lymphocytes  ■ Macrophages   ● fig 16.7      ● Phagocytic organisms   ■ Inflammation   ● Know the process in which the body recovers from getting stabbed  by a knife covered in bacteria   ○ Fig 16.8  ○   ○ Chemotactic response   ○ Chemokines   ■ Histamines   ○ Marination   ○ Emigration   ○ Phagocytosis   ● Systemic   ○ Toxins­­­> hypothalamus­­­­>blood temp­­­> chills  ○ Why does this happen   ■ Higher blood temp results in a greater production  ofLymphocytes  ​which are formed by T cells   ■ Interfero production increases   ■ Rapid tissue repair is added   ○ Pyrogens   ■ Increase temperature of body  ● Chapter 17  ○ Acquired immunity   ■ Cell­mediated immunity +humoral immunity work together to help fight   ● Antibodies (humoral)+ B cells and T cells (Cell­mediated  Immunity)  ■ Antigenic substances   ● Elicits a immune response by a rise in creating specific antibodies,  and specific cell­mediated immunity   ■ Know the difference between​aven ​nd​antigens   ○ Serum proteins   ■ What is serum proteins    ● Blood that has been centrifuged   ■ Globulins   ● Gamma   ● Beta  ● Alpha   ● Immunoglobulin   ○ IgG  ■ Major   ○ IgM   ■ First to appear after immunization   ○ IgA   ■ Major antibodies in secretions   ○ IgD  ■ minor   ○ IgE  ■ primarily involved in allergies   ● Anamnestic response   ■ Albumin   ○ Acquired immunity   ■ Naturally acquired   ■ Artificial acquired   ■    


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