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POLI 370, Week 13

by: runnergal

POLI 370, Week 13 POLI 370 001


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About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed in the class during the week of 4/11/16.
Introduction to Public Administration
Dr. Xuhong Su
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by runnergal on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 370 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Xuhong Su in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Administration in Political Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
POLI 370 – Lecture 21  Types of Administrative Reform 1. Downsizing: shrink the government by placing ceilings on spending and  personnel, contracting out, making layoffs, reductions­in­force, bump­out rule  (last in, first out), cutting programs, cutting the budget, selling land and military  bases, etc.  This type of reform has unclear effects and usually has little planning. It is more symbolic for policymakers than it is effective. 2. Reengineering: Design a completely new system that focuses on customers,  competition, and change. Ensures open access to the system, concentrated  communication, and effective outcomes.  Customer Service Movement: based on the idea that the government  works for its citizens. Each department identifies the people it serves,  surveys them on their satisfaction with the departments’ services, and then revises its approach to help citizens based on the survey feedback.  Performance Management: restructures incentives to convince  employees to provide the best services to the citizens; not focused on pure  customer outreach. 1. Specify organizational objectives. 2. Create performance indicators. 3. Conduct performance appraisals. 4. Use performance incentives to promote better outcomes. 5. Link human and financial services to the budget cycle. 6. Assess the effectiveness of the program and provide feedback.  Reengineering relies on technology and addresses what citizens think.  However, this strategy is high­risk, since the reengineering could be  completely ineffective, and it often doesn’t consider how this new strategy will impact other agencies and departments. 3. Continuous Improvement: gradual, consistent bottom­up movement.  Total Quality Management: this method seeks to improve quality within  the existing department through continuous improvement of services. This strategy emphasizes product, organization, leadership, and commitment.  Most people prefer this strategy since it has been around the longest. POLI 370 – Lecture 22  Performance Management o Performance management is based on expectancy theory: Effort  Performance Outcome Valence. Expectancy connects effort and performance, and  instrumentality connects performance and outcome.   Expectancy: do you believe that the expected job performance is  attainable?  Instrumentality: will employees be rewarded for good job performance?  Valence: is the reward valuable to the employees?  Essentially, if you value the reward, you will be motivated to perform  well.  Legal Framework o Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 1. Create a five­year strategic plan with a mission statement and long­term  goals for each agency and department. 2. Make annual performance plans by February 1  (before the president  submits his own budget request to Congress) with annual performance  goals and courses of action. 3. Agencies write up performance reports by November 1 . st o GPRA Modernization (2010)  This act required agencies to submit quarterly performance reviews of  federal procedure and management priorities in addition to annual  performance reports.  Establish Chief Operations Officers for each agency and equip them with  the necessary bureaucracy to improve performance.  Revise requirements for strategic plans, federal government goals, and  agency performance plans by the first Monday of February.  The Chief Human Capital Officer will put these plans online for the  general public’s viewing.  Performance Appraisal Methods 1. Traditional Performance Appraisal: emphasize personal traits like respect,  collegiality, attendance, etc. These traits are not necessarily job­related, and  therefore this method can instigate Title VII lawsuits and is not preferred. 2. Behavioral Criteria: supervisors rate all employees’ respective responsibilities  individually (responsibility rating). Their responsibilities are listed in their  respective job descriptions. As a result, each employee receives a unique job  appraisal for each position and agency. This approach is more time­consuming  and makes it hard to compare employees, but it is definitely job­related. 3. Management by Objective: the employee and the supervisor set goals together,  and the supervisor provides feedback to the employee regarding his/her progress  towards the goals. This approach may cause feelings of inequity among  employees, however, since they are all rated on different criteria.  Appraisal Pitfalls 1. Central Tendency Effect: when the supervisor rates all employees at the middle  of the rating scale, regardless of an employee’s specific job performance. 2. Recency Factor: when a supervisor rates an employee based on a recent event or  encounter, either positive or negative, and ignores the rest of the employee’s  performance. 3. Halo Effect: when a manager lets job performance in one area, either positive or  negative, influence ratings in other areas. 4. Personal Bias: when a supervisor allows a factor that is not related to job  performance influence performance ratings. 5. Leniency or Strictness: some supervisors may rate all employees either too  mercifully or too severely.  Performance Rating Inflation o Most employees are rated satisfactory because it helps retain good  supervisor/employees relationships (psychological reward), especially if no  money is involved. o It is hard to challenge ratings since they are subjective. o Ratings are almost irrelevant anyway since it is so hard to fire poor employees.  Best Performance Appraisal Practices 1. Train employees how to conduct performance appraisals. 2. Focus on objectivity and try to avoid appraisal pitfalls. 3. Supervisors should give feedback and support to employees. 4. Take written notes throughout the year on employees’ job performances.  Possible Employee Responses to Poor Appraisal o Protest (Voice)  Leak information to the media.  Publicly confront the supervisor.  Issue a memo to your fellow employees. o Exit (Resignation)  Resign and leak information to the media.  Publicly confront the supervisor.  Issue a memo to your fellow employees. o Sabotage (Disloyalty)  Leak information to the media.  Resign and leak information to the media.  Publicly confront your supervisor.


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