Organismal Biology Week 04/14/16
Organismal Biology Week 04/14/16 BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Final Exam Notes: • Lophotrochozoa ◦ PhylumAnnelida ‣ proteome ‣ eucoelmate ‣ trochophore larvae ‣ metamerism- somites • segmented= body consists of repeated number of units (somites) ‣ Repetition of organs (ex:Metanephridia) ‣ Separate (only one) digestive tract anterior body-->posterior • food makes one way trip;food doesn't move backwards • pharynx-->esophagus ‣ Metanephridrium • each and every separate excretory system related in each segment;more deviled and evolved than protonephridrium • Nerphrostome= start of each metanwphridrium;funnel shaped ◦ lots of ﬂuid entering • Post sepal tube= behind nerphrosome and interacts with capillary network • Capillary Network= reapportion of water and wastes ◦ interacts with coiled tubules • Nephridiopore ◦ external opening ‣ Class Olgliocheata • Oglio= relatively few • Cheata= hair like structures that are thick and bristle like • relatively few chaetae (bristles) • marine • freshwater • Terrestrial= Stylaria • Metamerism= an adaptation for burrowing • Burrowing ◦ extend-anchor-pull (repeat);can happen at more than one part of body because it is segmented ‣ Extending: circular muscles are being used;narrow diameter which causes extending of size of worm;chateae are pulled when body is extended ‣ Anchor:longitudinal muscles shorten the length,making the segment shorter and fatter,chatea are being extended;involves bristles ‣ Pull:longitudinal muscles ◦ Circular and Longitudinal Muscles ‣ use for extending,anchoring,and pulling ◦ Chaetae:remorse and retractable ‣ Retrose:aiming backward;good for burrowing through soil ‣ Retractable:pull in or stick out • Clitellum= mucus production for mutual sperm transfer and cocoon formation;two things that helps them with sexual reproduction ◦ Monoecious Hermaphrodita ( both female and male aperture) ‣ opening for gonophore ◦ Thick and fat different color segments ◦ body wall is different by the epidermis or skin containing a lot of mucus glands ‣ a lot of muscous is helpful in times of sexual reproduction ‣ most visible breeding in skeleton ◦ mutual sperm transfer is better because there is differentiation of genes;variety of offspring (major advantages of sexual reproduction) which allows natural selection to select the most ﬁt types ◦ female pores are anterior to male pores ◦ seminal grove= sperm grove;when sperm are released they are more likely to travel posterior ‣ prevent self fertilization ‣ production of mucous allows them to swim across across to the other worm ◦ Place clitellum is adjacent to gonophores of one ◦ form a cocoon;produce more mucous at site of clitellum;leaving mucous behind where eggs develop;protects eggs while they develop ‣ Class Polychaeta • many chatae and a lot of bristles • errant and sedentary marine worms ◦ sedentary worms ﬁnd a good spot to live and stays there because it because it builds a burrow or tube to settle in ◦ Errant= travels about in its habitat • Nereis= sandworms • Parapodia ◦ function in stepping/walking (locomotion);apart of every segment ◦ requires sensing habitat ◦ errant worms ◦ detailed structure used to identify species • Tentacles and eyes (more developed head);well identiﬁed head with sensory structures • Sea Mouse:errant worm ◦ covered with chatae;mammal-like but is a segmented worm • Chaetopterus:parchment tubeworm ◦ stays in the tube after it has developed ◦ complex structures for feeding ◦ parapodia ◦ heteronomy= different parts of body specialized for certain things ‣ parapodia modiﬁed for producing bed of mucous ‣ fan-like parapodia that creates water ﬂow brings in oxygen and takes out carbon dioxide • Sabellies:feather-duster,fan worms ◦ sedentary ◦ radioles:extend into water for ﬁlter feeding ◦ build tube of mucous incorporating sand • Lugworm=Arenicola ◦ sendetary burrower ◦ Castings:worm piles ◦ while die has gone out mounds of sand starts to appear;and worms remove itself to borrow and eats sand that looks like tooth-paste (eat sand) ◦ Set-up water ﬂow going in one end and out the other ‣ one end ﬁlls up with sand,fan like parapodia until ﬁltration occurs and eat sand and gets rid of all the sand that they remove the food from (castings) • Palolo= Eunice virdis ◦ errant ◦ greenish coloravirdis ◦ epitoky (atoke+ epitokes) ‣ reproduction that involves both asexual and sexual reproduction ‣ complicated system:all at once at one time of the year because if not production of offspring would be inefﬁcient ‣ asexual reproduction:longitudinal buds of epitokes • longitudinal budding strobila (strobilization) • each has a set of organs but the thing that is missing is the head • epitoky is the simultaneous release of buds of epitoke that contains egg and sperm (that are able to undergo sexual reproduction).The epitoke contains an eyespot that detects light and who timing id right all the epitokes are released simultaneously ‣ Sexual reproduction: • the synchronized timing of relate of sperm and eggs puts them close together so they can fertilize into larvae.The larvae are produced in a day and they drift off and develop into adult worms • the atoke (head of body section of the adult) remains attached to ocean substrate.Each year it generates a new epitoke for the annual spawn. ‣ Nymphomaniac Zombies= nickname ‣ atoke that is attached to a number of epitokes • atoke ﬁrst portion ◦ Palolo:name of annual festival that celebrated on the biology of a worm;predicted lunar cycle;5th night after the ﬁrst moon that happens in fall (late october) ocean like noodle soup ‣ collect worms and bring them back ‣ Class Hirudinea • parasitic and predaceous leeches ◦ parasitic:external • freshwater,marine,terrestrial • no chateae • no internal septa:no division between segments • external rings:annuli that makes them look like they have more segments than they actually do • Hirudo medicinalis= medicinal leech ◦ not found in wild but people culture them all around the world for reattaching body parts (ear lobe) ◦ no technology is as good at removing ﬂuids as leeches are • Stylets within the anterior sucker ◦ when they use the stylets to suck blood you do not feel it because of their delivery secretions ◦ often feeds for a while because you don't feel it,leech needs this blood ﬂow • Salivary secretions secretes saliva that contains ◦ anesthetic= you don't feel it ◦ anticoagulant= blood doesn't clot,blood thinner,used as a heart drug ◦ antiseptic= cleans wound and kills bacteria • Very useful in medicine,used for draining blood of toxins
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