PY 352 Ch 4 Notes w/ Video Notes
PY 352 Ch 4 Notes w/ Video Notes 11505
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 11505 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 178 views.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Chapter 4 Infancy amp Toddlerhood Biology 1 Body Growth a b h i Over the first two years of life children s bodies change faster than at any other time after birth Most differences between infants and toddlers physical abilities are a result of this dramatic body growth The early rise in baby fatquot which peaks at about 9 months helps the small infant maintain a constant body temperature In infancy girls are slightly shorter and lighter than boys Girls also have a higher ratio of fat to muscle Children of the same age also differ in rate of physical growth genetics matter The best estimate of a child s physical maturity is skeletal age which is a measure of bone development AfricanAmerican children tend to be slightly ahead of Caucasian children at all ages Girls are considerably ahead of boys 2 Body Proportions a b Cephalocaudal trend i Occurs during prenatal growth ii Head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body Proximodistal trend i Growth proceeds from the center of the body outward This pattern characterizes infancy and childhood ii The arms and legs grow ahead of the hands and feet 3 Brain Development a b c d The human brain has about 200 billion neurons Between the neurons are tiny gaps called synapses Neurons send messages to one another by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters Neurons establish their unique functions by extending their fibers to form connections with neighboring cells A surprising aspect of brain growth is programmed cell death i As synapses form many surrounding neurons die Neurons that are stimulated by input from the surrounding environment continue to establish new synapses Neurons that are seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses The mature brain is a set of interconnected regions each with specific functions The geography of the brain allows researchers to use neurobiological methods to study its developing organization and the activity 4 Parts of the brain a Parietal lobe Occipital Lobe Cerebellum Brain Stem Temporal Lobe Frontal Lobe 5 Lateralization a o Intuitive 323351 Bram Lateralizatlon Thought 0 Detail Oriented 0 Holistic Perception perception o Ordered 0 Random Sequencing Sequencing o Rational o grpotio nal Thought oug t o Verbal o Nonverbal o Cautious o Adventurous 0 Planning 0 Impulse o MathScience 0 anaemic 0 Logic nting rt 0 Sight Field iLneizg psgon isnn 0 Right Side lhis igiosn Motor Skills 0 e ide Motor Skills 6 Sensitive Periods a Extreme sensory deprivation results in permanent brain damage and loss of functions b Prolonged institutionalization of infants and toddlers lead to a generalized decrease in activity in the cerebral cortex c The chronic stress of early deprived orphanage rearing disrupts the brains ability to manage stress 7 Learning Capabilities a Learning refers to changes in behavior as the result of the experience b Babies are capable of learning through i Classical and Operant Conditioning ii Preference for novel stimulation habituation iii Observing and imitating others 8 Classical Conditioning a Newborn re exes make classical conditioning possible b A neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a re exive response c Once the baby s nervous system makes the connection between the two stimuli the neural stimulus produces the behavior by itself d An unconditioned stimulus UCS consistently produces a re exive unconditioned response UCR e A neutral stimulus which does not lead to a re ex is presented before or right at time of the Unconditioned stimulus f If learning has occurred neutral stimulation produces a response similar to re exive response g Stimulus is now called conditioned stimulus CS and the response it elicits is called a conditioned response CR 9 Operant Conditioning a Infants act on environment and stimulus that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again Stimulus increases occurrence of response reinforcer Removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease occurrence punishment d Operant Conditioning is vital to formation of social relationships 9 10 Big Bang Theory Video a Sheldon throws Penny chocolates b Change girlfriend behavior c Lower voice tone d Operant conditioning 11 Habituation a Habituation refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to a repetitive stimulation b Recovery is a return of responsiveness to a high level after stimulation changes c Researchers investigating infants understanding of the world rely on habituation and recovery more than any other learning capacity i Speech perception 12 Speech Sound Video a Ianet Worker b Speech sound of native language c Train baby to turn head when they hear a change in the word language They are rewarded with bunny i Ba ba ba ba bo ba d Can hear differences in languages 13 Perceptual Development a Newborn s can distinguish nearly all sounds in human languages b At 5 months babies become sensitive to syllable stress in patterns in their own language and in between languages c From 6 to 8 months babies start to screen outquot sounds not used in their native language d From 7 to 9 months babies start to divide the speech stream into wordlike units e To do this they use their impressive statistical learning capacity 14 Visual Perception Video a b c d A newborn s capacity to think reason and learn Best recognizes human face 6 inches away At first babies are interested in human contrast Face recognition Terry Lewis i Dylan is shown blob pictures and ii Dylan is drawn to the one that resembles a face iii Then Dylan is shown a picture of a blurry face and a light dark contrast iv He is interested in the contrast Light vs shadow contrast 4 weeks brain takes over from contrast to actual features to think and reason 2 months can put together sight and sound 6 months when you make noises know you refer to something The babies try to look at what you re referring to
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