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Week 13 notes

by: Josh Verble

Week 13 notes Hist 1010-001

Josh Verble

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Notes for final exam.
World History I
Daren E Ray
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josh Verble on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010-001 at Auburn University taught by Daren E Ray in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Final exam material, not cumulative. The final will be 50 multiple choice questions with an  additional 10 questions evaluating your ability to discern the major eras of World History BIG QUESTIONS ● What was so unprecedented about continuous contact between the eastern and  western hemisphere? ○ Precedented­ Portuguese link african states through efficient  Atlantic trade routes ○ Answer:  ● What were the consequences of a single global economy? ● Why did thousands of people engage in slave trade, even when they considered  it to be immoral? ● How did the plantation complex differ from the accumulation of profits by  merchants? ● How did the christian reformations motivate europeans to increase their  engagement with other people throughout the world? ● How did globalization catalyze advances in scientific knolege? PEOPLE ● Christopher Columbus­ discovered fast, reliable routes across Atlantic ● John Cabot­ discovers direct route to north america ● Jacque Carties­  ○ First voyage­ voyages to modern day canada, takes two chiefs  sons to france to become translators ○ Second voyage­ refuses iroquois hospitality and seeks wealth  further down the river, many of his sailors die of scurvy(which the iroquois had a  cure for) ○ Third voyage­ finds fool's gold and quartz which he mistakes for  gold and rubies ● Hernando de soto­  ○ Announces his conquest to the native americans (in spanish) and  he ended up chasing rumors of gold (started by native americans) had he  eventually dies in louisiana ● Europeans­ kings send their vassals to explore, conquer, and found colonies in  america. The majority of settlers were of the most disadvantaged of europe. ● Africans­ some africans move to europe for education, service to the catholic  church, and as domestic servants. 10­12 million forcibly relocated to the americas as  enslaved labor much later. ● Asians­ no sustained expansion into the americas ● Euro Africans­  ○ The middleman between europeans and slaves.  ○ Paid in guns, rum, and textiles ○ This trade cultivated and sustained war in africa ● Martin Luther­ started the protestant reformation ○ Challenged churches selling indulgences ○ Started printing german bibles that people could actually read ○ Wanted to restore the church to “primitive worship” as depicted in  the new testament ○ Faith more important than sacriments ● Bartolome de las Casas (1484­1566) ­ Protector of the indians ○ Dominican monk ○ Documented spanish slaughter of the indians ○ Debated against the right to slaughter natural slaves ○ Focused on banning slavery of indians, and suggested that  enslaved africans could make up the labor shortage ● Natural philosophers­ ○ Francis bacon ○ Rene Descartes ○ Isaac Newton PLACES ● Kongo in central africa­  ○ people understood europeans as coming from the land of the  dead and thought them to have spiritual powers ○ Some believed the europeans were their own ancestors ○ Rulers adopted catholicism and portugese ideas about monarchy ● West Africa­  ○ some saw europe as land of the dead ○ Worshiped gods related to the atlantic ocean ○ If you worship these gods, then you will have success trading with  the europeans ● North America­ ○ Contains several chiefdoms and tribes (small scale society) ○ 4 or 5 major language groups focused on agricultural production  and foraging ○ Because there are no large large societies, the europeans can’t  easily conquer and have a hard time figuring out how to turn a profit.  ○ Native Americans would find the items left over from europeans  and would learn things from them. They would find brass or gold items or carved  wooden items and native americans would trade them for power.  ○ Native americans show up on the shore with things to trade such  as animal furs that they already had. THINGS ● Columbian Exchange­ movement of people, plants, animals, goods, and  diseases across the atlantic and the consequences of those exchanges ● Historical imagination vs historical fiction­ peoples would have to try to figure out  on their own what the europeans were and where they were from and they would  sometimes come up with wild ideas that were far from the truth but justified in their  society. ● Cosmology­ the was the world is put together or organised, not just physically but also spiritually ● Regional economies­ before the columbian exchange, there were several  regional exchanges that were completely separated with no contact.  ● Catalyst­ the europeans were a catalyst for the native americans but not the only  one. Something that initiates or accelerates a process ● Population collapse­ 75­95% in large european settlements. ● European importation­  ○ Animals­ horses, cows, pigs, dogs ○ Plants­ potatoes, sweet potatoes, manioc/cassava, tomatoes,  corn, quintine, tobacco, chocolate, peanuts ● European export­ ○ Plants­ okra, collard greens, wheat, rice, sugar, apples, onions,  coffee, domesticated herd animals(except the llama) ● Cash crops­ sugar cane, coffee, cacao, tobacco, coca ● Subsistence crops­ ○ Maize­ multiple harvests a year in basically any climate, corn  husks protect from pests, quickly depletes soil nutrients ○ Cassava­ crop will last for years in the ground, makes a delicious  pudding, poisonous if eaten raw ○ Potatoes­ grows in the ground(hidden from marauding armies),  provides all essential nutrition ● Microbes­ leads to 90% mortality rate in the americas ○ Typhus­ flu like symptoms followed by full body rash and infection ○ Smallpox ○ Influenza ○ Plague ○ Malaria ● Landed environmental imperialism­ territory for taxes, transform forest, bog,  tundra, mountain, and sea into taxable farmland. ● Maritime environmental imperialism­ transform colonies into producers and  exporters ● Slavery arguments­ ○ Enlightenment philosophy­ slavery is the absence of freedom ○ African sensibility­ slavery is the absence of kin ○ Orlando patterson, a sociologist­ slavery is social death ○ Chattel slavery: humans are transferable property ● Triangle trade­ Americas give cash crops/bills of exchange to europe, europe  gives textiles to africa, africa gives slaves to the americas ● Trading Diasporas­settled in many places so that they always have someone to  trade with ● Slaves­  ○ For the most part, the planters want male slaves but some women are taken as well.  ○ They are treated like a good and put on display, valued only for  their use. ○ Slave trade represented less than 10% of african trade ○ Some places represented almost 90% of trade ○ Represented a population loss of what you would see in a drought or famine ○ Enslavement=similar risk as being in a car accident today ● The cost of slavery­ ○ Lowers status of women because so many women are enslaved ○ More coercive governments sustained by military elites ○ General decline in safety and goodwill among communities ○ Huge inequalities of wealth ○ Gives raw goods to europe for finished products ● Benefits to europe­ ○ Labor supply ● Plantation complex­ ● Monocrop agriculture­ one crop production ● Slave society­when the economy revolves around slave labor ● Industrializing­ increasing the scale of production through investment in  machines ● Globalization­ idea that there are networks of trade that cross the entire world ● Syncretism­ the mixing of religious traditions ● Protestant reformation­ movement protesting the excommunication of martin  luther ● Indulgences­ paying the church to be absolved of sin ● Free interpretation­ not everyone agreed with luther’s interpretation of the bible ● Counter reformation­  ● Jesuit Order­ order of monks patterned on chivalrous orders of knights ● Millenarianism­ franciscan missionary efforts motivated by the assumption that  the world was coming to an end ● Orthodox­ “uniform belief” ● Vernacular­ (=common language) translations of the bible ● Empiricism­ reality is observable and verifiable through the five senses


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