Week 13 lecture notes
Week 13 lecture notes Geog 1250
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Goble on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1250 at Bowling Green State University taught by Marius Paulikas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Geography at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Monday Lecture, 4/11 Types of thunderstorms o Single cell (air mass) thunderstorms Most dangerous thunderstorms in summer time Lightening danger Time duration/intensity o Multicell thunderstorms (gust front) Consists of a group of "cells" Shelf cloud horizontalwedge cloud associated with thunderstorm gust front Squall lines Edge of rain cooled air gust front Hazards Straight line winds Hail Low intensity tornado o Super cell Usually holds the most severe weather Mesocyclones Hazards Heavy rain Hail Tornados Supercell formation ??? Wall cloud Low LCL Tornado development?? o Classic supercells Precipitation patterns are separated from the tornado o HP supercell (high precipitation supercell) Visibility is very unclear and difficult to see due to heavy precipitation around the tornado Flash floods cannot drain water fast enough and the area starts to flood (short time frame) o The NUMBER ONE thunderstorm killer o Moving and rising water can be very dangerous to drivers (can move cars and cause hydroplaning) o Precautions Move to higher ground and stay away from drainage ditches/streambeds Do not drive in high water areas Hail o Strong updrafts of thunderstorms o Typical in multicell (squall line) storms and supercell storms o Hail formation Ice crystal collects frozen water droplets and increases in size The hail will fall due to gravity, but if there is an updraft, the hail will be lifted back up into the atmosphere and it will continue to grow in size Usually falls right next to the updraft when it is heavy enough to fall Destroys crops, property, etc Straight line winds /microbursts o Downdraft "splashing" effect next to the storm on the side o Microburst smaller feature of downward splashing wind on side of the rain storm (80100 mph) o Macroburst larger version of the above ^ o Squall lines and supercells o Hazard to air crafts Tornado o Tornado vs. funnel cloud Tornado violently rotating column of air which is connected from the parent storm cloud to the ground Associated with UPdrafts Rotation counter clockwise Multiple individual tornados can happen inside on tornado Threats "Landspot" a weak tornado that touched the ground attached to a cumulous cloud "Water spout" "Dust devil" Supercells most favorable environment for tornado to develop Formation Rotating wall cloud will often cause a tornado underneath the mesocyclone Tornados on RADAR Hook echo Velocity couplet TVS (tornado vortex signature) rotating winds and a tornado is issued Tornado intensity 75% of all tornados are usually low intensities Enhanced Fujita scale measures tornado intensity Only 1% of tornados are near the F5 intensity, most are near the lower end F0 Light (64118 kmph) F1 Moderate F2 Considerable F3 Severe F4 Devastating F5 Incredible What you should do Weather radio Basement/interior closet DO NOT be in a vehicle (they can be lofted, but usually they are only lofted if the wind speeds are very high) Wednesday Lecture, 4/13 Tornados around the globe Most tornados occur in the U.S. not many happen in other areas of the world This is because of geographic and mid latitude elements Rocky mountains, air masses clashing Tornado seasons in the U.S. Jet stream dividing line of cold and warmer air (Southern and Nothern winds) Early spring, colder air in the South June is the most favorable time of the year for BG to have tornados MAY is the most favorable time for tornados to occur in the U.S Oklahoma "Tornado alley" largest frequency of tornadoes found in the Plains states (OK, KS, TX) Greatest amount of deaths from tornados is concentrated in Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee BECAUSE : Forest cover causes low visibility and makes tornadoes deadlier Mobile home deaths are the HIGHEST death rates mostly caused by F0 and F1 tornado events. Most mobile home owners live in these areas, causing more deaths from weaker tornadoes False ideas and myths of tornadoes Larger the tornado, the stronger Mobile homes attract tornadoes Tornadoes avoid downtown areas Opening windows will minimize destruction Overpass is a good place to take shelter Southwest corner of basement Weather watches vs, warning Watch before tornado issued for larger areas, 26 hours before anticipated event Begin taking precautions for possible hazardous weather conditions Warning issued for smaller areas like sections of a county Hazardous weather is imminent (meaning there may not always be a tornado on the GROUND). A hook echo may be spotted, but the tornado may be in the atmosphere and resultantly, not affect the people on ground Take action as soon as you hear a warning Tornado emergency tornado warning with highest level of urgency (seen on video, moving towards public) Funnel cloud rotating column of air that does not touch the ground Friday Lecture, 4/15 Lightning number 2 thunderstorm killer o Temperatures reach 30,000 Celsius o Most lightning strikes are within cloud (80%) 20% are cloudtoground strikes Ground strikes are most common reasons for deaths from lightning (don't lie flat on ground. Feet closer together makes lightening travel through you faster) o Heating causes ___ which creates shockwave. Shockwave = thunder o Cloudtocloud lightening Ice particles clashing with supercooled water droplets this is the PRIMARY source that causes the charged particles Lighter particles vs heavier particles Atmospheric resistance o Cloudtoground lighting Stepped leaders negatively charged particles that drop from the storm cloud Streamers positively charged particles that work their way upward from a tall point on the ground (working to meet the lightening striking down from the cloud) They will take the shortest path to meet the corresponding lightning from cloud Return stroke main lightning bolt we see when the streamer and stepped leaders meet into one bolt o Florida Lightning capital of the U.S. o Safety Wait 30 mins before the last clap of thunder before you are far enough away from lightning risk Do not be next to tall objects on the ground Don't lie flat on ground or go into open fields Good places to be? Enclosed shelters Enclosed all metal vehicles TOPIC 12 Extratropical cyclones and anticyclones Midlatitude cyclone o Cooler air to the North, warmer air in the South o When these happen in cold months, it produces ice and snow o When these happen in warm months, it produces severe weather like thunderstorms and cool air/warm air fronts o "Comma shape" Comma head Comma tail Squall line of strong thunderstorms Dry slot (black area between head and tail) continental polar on ground and sinking air from upper altitudes get ingested into the circulation of the cyclone
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