New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 13 lecture notes

by: Bridget Goble

Week 13 lecture notes Geog 1250

Bridget Goble
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Week 13 lecture material
Weather and Climate
Marius Paulikas
Class Notes
lightning, tornado
25 ?




Popular in Weather and Climate

Popular in Geography

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Goble on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1250 at Bowling Green State University taught by Marius Paulikas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Geography at Bowling Green State University.


Reviews for Week 13 lecture notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/17/16
Monday Lecture, 4/11    Types of thunderstorms o Single cell (air mass) thunderstorms  Most dangerous thunderstorms in summer time  Lightening danger  Time duration/intensity o Multicell thunderstorms (gust front)  Consists of a group of "cells"  Shelf cloud ­ horizontal­wedge cloud associated with thunderstorm gust  front   Squall lines  Edge of rain cooled air ­ gust front  Hazards  Straight line winds  Hail  Low intensity tornado  o Super cell   Usually holds the most severe weather   Mesocyclones  Hazards  Heavy rain  Hail  Tornados  Supercell formation ???  Wall cloud   Low LCL   Tornado development?? o Classic supercells  Precipitation patterns are separated from the tornado o HP supercell (high precipitation supercell)  Visibility is very unclear and difficult to see due to heavy precipitation  around the tornado  Flash floods ­ cannot drain water fast enough and the area starts to flood (short time  frame) o The NUMBER ONE thunderstorm killer o Moving and rising water can be very dangerous to drivers (can move cars and  cause hydroplaning) o Precautions  Move to higher ground and stay away from drainage ditches/streambeds  Do not drive in high water areas  Hail  o Strong updrafts of thunderstorms  o Typical in multicell (squall line) storms and supercell storms o Hail formation  Ice crystal collects frozen water droplets and increases in size  The hail will fall due to gravity, but if there is an updraft, the hail will be  lifted back up into the atmosphere and it will continue to grow in size  Usually falls right next to the updraft when it is heavy enough to fall  Destroys crops, property, etc  Straight line winds /microbursts o Downdraft "splashing" effect next to the storm on the side o Microburst ­ smaller feature of downward splashing wind on side of the rain  storm (80­100 mph) o Macroburst ­ larger version of the above ^ o Squall lines and supercells o Hazard to air crafts  Tornado  o Tornado vs. funnel cloud  Tornado ­ violently rotating column of air which is connected from the  parent storm cloud to the ground  Associated with UPdrafts  Rotation ­ counter clockwise   Multiple individual tornados can happen inside on tornado  Threats  "Landspot" ­ a weak tornado that touched the ground  attached to a cumulous cloud  "Water spout"   "Dust devil"   Supercells ­ most favorable environment for tornado to  develop  Formation  Rotating wall cloud will often cause a tornado underneath  the mesocyclone   Tornados on RADAR   Hook echo  Velocity couplet  TVS (tornado vortex signature) ­ rotating winds and a  tornado is issued  Tornado intensity ­ 75% of all tornados are usually low intensities   Enhanced Fujita scale ­ measures tornado intensity   Only 1% of tornados are near the F5 intensity, most  are near the lower end  F0 ­ Light (64­118 kmph)  F1 ­ Moderate  F2 ­  Considerable  F3 ­ Severe  F4 ­ Devastating  F5 ­ Incredible  What you should do   Weather radio  Basement/interior closet  DO NOT be in a vehicle (they can be lofted, but usually  they are only lofted if the wind speeds are very high)    Wednesday Lecture, 4/13    Tornados around the globe   Most tornados occur in the U.S. ­ not many happen in other areas of  the world  This is because of geographic and mid latitude elements  Rocky mountains, air masses clashing  Tornado seasons in the U.S.  Jet stream ­ dividing line of cold and warmer air (Southern and  Nothern winds)  Early spring, colder air in the South  June is the most favorable time of the year for BG to have  tornados  MAY is the most favorable time for tornados to occur in the  U.S   Oklahoma "Tornado alley" ­ largest frequency of tornadoes found in  the Plains states (OK, KS, TX)  Greatest amount of deaths from tornados is concentrated in  Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee BECAUSE :   Forest cover causes low visibility and makes tornadoes deadlier  Mobile home deaths are the HIGHEST death rates ­ mostly  caused by F0 and F1 tornado events. Most mobile home  owners live in these areas, causing more deaths from weaker  tornadoes  False ideas and myths of tornadoes  Larger the tornado, the stronger  Mobile homes attract tornadoes  Tornadoes avoid downtown areas  Opening windows will minimize destruction  Overpass is a good place to take shelter  Southwest corner of basement  Weather watches vs, warning  Watch before tornado ­ issued for larger areas, 2­6 hours before  anticipated event  Begin taking precautions for possible hazardous weather  conditions  Warning ­ issued for smaller areas like sections of a county  Hazardous weather is  imminent  (meaning there may not always be a tornado on the GROUND). A hook echo may be spotted,  but the tornado may be in the atmosphere and resultantly, not  affect the people on ground  Take action as soon as you hear a warning  Tornado emergency ­ tornado warning with highest level of urgency  (seen on video, moving towards public)  Funnel cloud ­ rotating column of air that does  not touch the ground   Friday Lecture, 4/15    Lightning ­ number 2 thunderstorm killer o Temperatures reach 30,000 Celsius o Most lightning strikes are within cloud (80%) ­­­­ 20% are cloud­to­ground  strikes  Ground strikes are most common reasons for deaths from lightning (don't  lie flat on ground. Feet closer together makes lightening travel through you  faster) o Heating causes ___ which creates shockwave. Shockwave = thunder o Cloud­to­cloud lightening   Ice particles clashing with supercooled water droplets ­­­ this is the  PRIMARY source that causes the charged particles  Lighter particles vs heavier particles  Atmospheric resistance o Cloud­to­ground lighting  Stepped leaders ­ negatively charged particles that drop from the storm  cloud  Streamers ­ positively charged particles that work their way upward from  a tall point on the ground (working to meet the lightening striking down from  the cloud)  They will take the shortest path to meet the corresponding  lightning from cloud  Return stroke ­ main lightning bolt we see when the streamer and stepped  leaders meet into one bolt o Florida ­ Lightning capital of the U.S. o Safety   Wait 30 mins before the last clap of thunder before you are far enough  away from lightning risk  Do not be next to tall objects on the ground  Don't lie flat on ground or go into open fields  Good places to be?  Enclosed shelters  Enclosed all metal vehicles TOPIC 12 Extratropical cyclones and anticyclones    Mid­latitude cyclone o Cooler air to the North, warmer air in the South o When these happen in cold months, it produces ice and snow o When these happen in warm months, it produces severe weather like  thunderstorms and cool air/warm air fronts o "Comma shape"  Comma head ­   Comma tail ­ Squall line of strong thunderstorms  Dry slot (black area between head and tail) ­ continental polar on ground  and sinking air from upper altitudes get ingested into the circulation of the  cyclone


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.