PHIL 102 categorical propositions
PHIL 102 categorical propositions PHIL 102
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kevin Thayyil on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 102 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by David R. Gilbert in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Logic and Reasoning in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Lecture 12 Categorical Proposition Wednesday, March 2, 2016 10:05 AM Categorical Proposition A proposition that makes two categories by expressing a part/whole relationship between them. The proposition asserts that either all or part of the class denoted by the subject term is included in or excluded from the class denoted by the predicate term Ex. All cellphones are prohibited in this class Cellphones are the subject prohibited in this class is the predicate are is the copula [some form of to be] all is the quantifier [some, none etc.] Standard Form A categorical proposition is in standard form if and only if it is a substitution instance of one of the following four forms: All S are P. No S are P. Some S are P. Some S are not P. We can either talk about the Quantity or the Quality Quantity can be either Universal [asserts about the whole subject class] or Particular [asserts about only some of the subject class] Quality can be Affirmative [affirms class membership] or Negative [denies class membership] Proposition Quantity Quality Letter Distribution All S are P Universal Affirmative A S No S are P Universal Negative E S P Some S are P Particular Affirmative I Neither Some S are not P Particular Negative O P Affirmo nego A term is distributed if the proposition makes an assertion about every member of the class denoted by the term. Otherwise it is undistributed. Distribution is a property of the subject and the predicate. i.e. A term is distributed if and only if the statement assigns (or distributes) an attribute to every member of the class denoted by the term. All S are P No S are P Some S are not P S is distributed and P is not. In other words, for any universal affirmative (A) proposition, the subject term, whatever it may be, is distributed, and the predicate term is undistributed This statement makes a claim about every member of S and every member of P. It asserts every member of S is separate from every member of P, and also that every member of P is separate from every member of S. Therefore, both the subject and predicate terms of universal negative (E) propositions are distributed. Since the other members of S may or may not be outside of P, the statement “Some S are not P ” does not make a claim about every member of S, so S is not distributed. But, from the diagram, the statement does assert that every member of P is separate and distinct from this one member of S that is outside the P circle. Thus, in the particular negative (O) proposition, P is distributed and S is undistributed Ex: Some Dogs are not hounds Here we aren’t saying that hounds are not dogs. Assume that the "some dog" we are talking about is a dog called Fido. Then we know that all hounds aren’t Fido Ex: Some liquids are not water Here we aren't saying that liquids can’t be water. But we are saying that a certain (could be more than one) liquid (Hydrochloric Acid for example) isn't water. And this goes for everything that is water. Hence it is distributed over all of water. Hence the distribution happens over P
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