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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2337 at George Washington University taught by Jessica C. Liao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
April 5, 2016 The Strong Asian State ● East Asia Miracle: ○ Who are they?Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Vietnam and Malaysia ○ What led to their succexport led economy with a high capacity state that figures out best economic strategies ■ After 80s, Vietnam and China begin to copy system and develop economy ● Embedded autonomy coined by Peter Evans) ○ Embedded because trong connection with industries but have high autonomy enough to resist pressure from rentseeking sections ○ Responds to social demands by business but resist pressure ○ Promote long term goals that serve broad public interests ● Distinct features of Asia state: ○ Unlike African stathey’re based upon ethnically homogenous ■ Makes it easier to have clear national interest ○ Unlike European statehey’re preceded the establishment of legal institutions ■ In Europerule of law came from religion countering king ■ In AsiaKing is highest power ○ RESULTS IN STRONG STATE WITH LITTLE ACCOUNTABILITIES ● Japanese bureaucracy: ○ Tokugawa Period:16081868 ■ Feudalism between bakufu (the shogun’s administration) and military lords’ han (domains) ○ Still had a STRONG and UNIFIED bureaucracy ■ Taxation, residential registration and land survey ■ CENTRALIZED ● The Meiji Restoration: ○ Arrived of western colonial p853 1 ■ USA came into Japan and forced them to open trade ■ Example in China led to Japan reacting ○ Rise of centralized state undmperor Meiji in 1868 ■ Adoption oconscript army and national ao more samurai ■ Samurai rebellion FAILurther centralizing power ■ Power consolidation achievedhe end of the 1870s ■ Building a state not a nation ● Strong national identity based on Shinto religion and homogenous society ● Emperor becomes source of Shinto, living god ● Creation of a modern Weberian bureaucracy: ○ Political elites Imperial Household ○ Old domain government as personnel of bureaucracy ○ Law Faculty of Tokyo Imperial Univesupplies technocrats ○ Strict civil service rom early to upper levels ● The spread of law in Japan: ○ First it wrule of law ■ No religious base butdministrative arm of government ■ Copied Chineseriminal law and administrative law ○ During Meiji restoration begin to COPY WESTERN LAW ■ No concept of right ■ Adopted Prussian civil syshat fit its bureaucracy tradition ■ Meiji Constitut889: a. Civil code of 1907 b. Instead of adopting USA and Britain’s right based system c. Sovereignty in the emperights to appoint minister, control military, etc d. Diet’s weak budgetary pos opposed to administration e. Citizens rights bestowed BY EMPEROR i. Given to them not active right ○ Who are pushing for limit power? ■ Domestic opposition groupamurai and peasants a. Peasants were not okay with taxes and having to join army b. Not strong or centralized enough ■ Created Constitutionrove to western counterparts that Japan was modern ● Bureaucratic autonomy goes wild: ○ Was there a conservative coalition or fascist party in Meiji’s Japan? ○ Japan’s rise of Japanese militame from Japan’s oversea empire and authoritarianism in Manchuria ○ Rise of Kwantung Arm nd emperor became captive of military ■ Samurai trying to take over ● Law and Democracy: ○ 1947 Constitutinnd impact: ■ Following defeat in WWII ■ Article demilitarization of Japan ■ Land reform and strengthening women’s rights ○ Failed: ■ Dismantling of zaibatsu (keiretsu) a. Got “dismantled” but quickly appeared as keiretsu b. Big powerful families that are in ALL sectors ■ Reducing bureaucratic autonomy ● Symbols of Japan’s bureaucratic autonomy: ○ Dominance ofiberal Democratic Party (LDP) ■ Not voted out of office until recently ■ Not good due to earthquake and Fukushima nuclear plant ○ Iron Triangle betwee DP, administration and business sector ○ MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry) April 7, 2016 China’s Case ● Authoritarian developmental statfocusing on economic growth using authoritarianism ○ Strong control over who can play in economy ○ Some say that globalization is lowering developmental states because industries have more way to get money than the government ● MOST IMPORTANT THING: labor repression to keep price of labor low so country remains competitive ○ East Asian Models: start with authoritarian rule and high political insulation (shield from political pressure) ○ For many this means being able to pick what/who gets to rise in economy ○ High control in finance and industries policy ● The Chinese Economic Miracle: ○ For less than 3 decades, China has: ■ Maintained an average of 9% annual growth rate ■ Increased per capita income 100% ■ More than double urbanization rate ■ Became world’s 2nd largest economy ○ 1978 or 1979: Xiaoping begins to introduce economic reform ○ Before is the Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution: anticapitalism, antiintellectual (devastating) ● Policy Factorswhat did China’s government do to make transition smooth ○ Gradualist reform stratecompared to USSR’s shock therapy that devastated the economy, gradual allowed for smooth transition ○ Decentralization strategmuch less centralized than USSR ■ Government is not so impeded in society so can adopt gradual transition ○ Authoritarian rulallows government to manipulate whatever they want without feeling pressure or be stopped ■ Allows to control labor ○ Super focus on growth ● Economic Factors:economic factors have set up in way that can’t fail ○ High savings ratemakes money available for industries to use to invest ■ Seen in almost all Asian tigers ■ Less lussian for banks and government ■ Allows good loan benefits, due to small welfare so people have to safe to ensure future ○ Globalizationtart with almost NO trade during Great Leap Forward and now huge openness and trading with almost all nations ○ Migration of rural labmore people available to work in cities ■ Surplus from agriculture to industrial/manufacture ■ Running out of people in rural area due to one child policy ○ Growing and dynamic private sectbefore mostly public sector run economy, huge privatization ○ Spreading growth clustereconomic growth occurring mostly in coastal area virgin areas where industries can spread ● Political Reform: Critical Assessment ○ Golden rule of economic development and democratizatwhen economy reaches level democracy will be demanded ○ Is China an exceptionhina is developmental state in large scale ■ So far no sign of political reform ■ Actually political reform is getting less likely ● Strengthening the legislative branch: ○ Effort istrengthening the National People’s Congress and local people’s congresses ■ Used to be called “rubber state” state council (executive) proposes MOST legislation (most by CCP) ○ Daunting legislative achievemenly 18% of bills in 11 years are proposed not known how many passed ■ After 1989, Tatiman Square CCP started looking at giving them more power but failed ○ Law with high ambiguity and discreiill interpret law to favor CCP ● Legal reform: ○ Big push for legal reform in late 70s and economic reform ■ Gave foreigners guarantee of property rights ○ LOST momentum since the late 1990sharp fall of suits against the government ■ Before win rate is 40% now it is less than 10% ○ CCP political and legal committee controlling courts and law enforcement ○ Local government dominance over court budget and personovernment is very decentralized and local government controls courts ● Village Elections: ○ Local manipulation of electiOT FAIR ELECTIONS ■ Local government have lots of say on who is nominee ○ Weak power against CCP’s grass root poweost loyal ally of CCP is farmers so need their support ○ Elected village committees constantly being replaced with CCP ○ Isolated villages allowed to run self and elect leaders ■ CCP can’t control everyday operations but people began to demand for more ● Autocracy and development: ○ Can a country maintain high development without political reform? ■ 3 problems in China ○ Constituency maintenance, inequality and inefficiency: ■ Fall of charismatic leaders and rise of privilege political constituencies ■ Proelite policies in recent years 0s and 90s decrease state enterprises leading to huge wealth concentration in few remaining ones a. Used to be farmers b. People relying on political machine c. Administrative expense larger than budget for health and education ■ Rise in crony capitalism ● Incentive structure and social deficits: ○ Pursuit of economic growth: only looking at reaching goal set by government invest for sake of investment and faking statistics ○ Plunge of social investment: n o money left because all in growth ○ In 2005, ⅔ don’t health insurance and half won’t get medical help