Week of Feb. 9-13
Week of Feb. 9-13 24010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amalia Cristiano on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 24010 at San Diego State University taught by Berta in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Biology 204 in Biology at San Diego State University.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
February 9 2015 Fungi most biomass is underground as hyphae Importance of Fungi decomposers mutualistic symbionts with plants parasitespathogens economically useful food medicine breadalcohol Leafcutter ants in tropical America culture a fungus and eat it that decomposes leaves symbiotic relationship ParasiticPathogenic ringworm tanea athlete s foot certain pneumonia s candida yeast infections plant diseases corn smut Wheat rust Heterotrophs Chemoheterotrophs feed by absorptive nutrition They secrete digestive enzymes that break down food then absorb digested food Cell walls contain chitin Some fungi are unicellular most multicellular or coenocytic hyphae Mycelium body of fungusmass of hyphae 5 groups of fungi 1 Chytridiomycetes 2 Zygomycetes 3 Glomeromycetes 4 Ascomycetes 5 Basiliomycetes Deuteromycetes Imperfect Fungi fungi with no sexual structures now classified into other groups with DNA analysis Chytrids aquatic with agellated cells unicellular or multicellular some have alternations of generations haploid and diploid phases Zygomycetes coencocytic septate hyphae most produce sporangiophores which bear sporangia which produce asexual spores Rhizopus black bread mold reproduce sexually Glomeromycetes mychorrhizal root of vascular plant Symbiotic association mutualistic between a fungus and the roots of a plant Essential for growth in many plants They help a plant to absorb water and mineral nutrients such as phosphorous and the fungus obtains highenergy carbohydrates from the plants Can form networks interlinking different trees of the same or different species Ascomycetes hyphae with cells having two nuclei dikaryotic hyphae which is an apomorphy of both Glomeromycetes and Ascomycetes Ascus sac containing walled spores ascospores Sexual reproduction 2 major groups Hemiascomycetes no fruiting structure and Euascomycetes fruiting structure Hemiascomycetes yeast saccharomyces sugar fungi reproduce asexually by budding unequal cell divisions one smaller one bigger anaerobic fermentation Glucosegtgtgtgtethanol and C02 yeast used in breadalcohol production C02 causes bread to rise important in molecular biology Euascomycetes have fruiting bodies called ascocarps Some economically significant parasites February 11 2015 Ergot Infects ryeoutbreak in Europe Caused hallucinations madness convulsions etc Medicinal Value 1 Ergonovine used to induce labor 2 Ergotamine used to treat migraines LSD derived from secondary compounds of Ergot Euascomycetes Some are edible Morels Truf es subterranean pigs can be trained to find them Worth a lot of money Penicillium Mold that produces the antibiotic penicillin discovered by Fleming Also used as cheese avoring brie bleu Aspergillus Used in production of soy sauce and other avorings Used in production of sake breaks down starches to sugars Green Plants Chromobionta Chloroplasts chlorophyll a and b Storage product starch Thylakoids in stacks called grana Cell Walls composed of cellulose Polymer of glucose 2 forms of glucose alpha and beta forms Starch 14 linkage of glucose monomers Cellulose beta form of glucose Cellulose Cell Wall Made of cellulose microfibrils Green Algae A paraphyletic group Unicellularmulticellular Colonial Filamentous Thalloid Life cycle variable haplontic diplontic haplodiplontic Many green algae have agella Oogamy evolution of the egg Egg large nonmotile gamete The Land Plants Embryophyta First colonization of plants on land approx 400 mil Years ago Now dominate the Earth Haploid gametophyte 1 set of chromosomes Diploid sporophyte 2 sets of chromosomes Haplodiplontic Life Cycle Altemation of Generations Found in several groups of algae as well GametophytegtgtgametesgteggspermgtgtfertilizationzygotegtgtEmbryoimmature sporophytegtgtSporophytegtgtsporangium meiosisgtgtsporocytesgtgtspores Parenchyma 3D mass of cells Apomorphy for all land plants Generalized cell type of ground tissue system functions in metabolismcell growth Cuticle Protective layer on outside of outer layer of cells epidermis Inhibits water loss Antheridium Male reproductive organ of gametophyte Produces sperm Archegonium Female reproductive organ of gametophyte Produces egg Prevents against water loss dessication Only occurs When dewywet outside cells so sperm can swim Liverworts Hepaticae 2 basic forms thalloid and leafy Thalloid at mass of tissue Leafy individual at structures that resemble leaves Gemmae gemma cup asexual reproductive structure Stomates apomorphy of Homworts Functions in gas exchange C02 in H20 and 02 out Controls loss of water vapor Hornworts Always thalloid Have cylindrical sporophyte Mosses All leafy Specialized conducive cells Gametophyte longlived dominant Sporophyte shortlived nutritionally dependent on gametophyte Sphagnum Peat moss Leaves have tiny pores that retain water Plants make ground water acidic from extensive bogs Secrete acid into environment inhibits growth of fungibacteria Possible adaptation Peat partially decomposed Sphagnum Used in potting media Used as fuel Vascular Plants Tracheophytes A land plant With vascular tissue xylem and phloem Functions in conduction of watersugar Sporophyte dominant and independent Roots shoots and supportive tissue Rhynia One of earliest vascular plants Lacked roots Xylem H20 and mineral conductive tissue Composed of 1 Tracheids no perforation plates 2 Vessels Perforation plates in end walls Phloem sugar conductive tissue 1 Sieve Cells 2 Sieve Tube Members Both With calloselined pores
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