New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 14 Lecture Notes

by: Maddie Butkus

Week 14 Lecture Notes Psys 100

Marketplace > Ball State University > Psychlogy > Psys 100 > Week 14 Lecture Notes
Maddie Butkus
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes have one of the final exam essay prompts!!
Intro to Psychological Science
Dr. Paul Biner
Class Notes
Biner, Week14, LectureNotes
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Psychological Science

Popular in Psychlogy

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.


Reviews for Week 14 Lecture Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/17/16
▯ Personality Ch. 13 ▯ ESSAY ALERT: ▯ Four general Theoretical Approaches to Personality development 1. Psychoanalytic Approach: these theories assume that personality is shaped by several inner conflicting forces. 2. Trait/Genetic Approach: these theories assume that our personalities are made up of traits largely inherited form our biological parents and ancestors. 3. Humanistic Approach: these theories assume that we all strive for perfection and out of this striving personality develops. 4. Cognitive/social-learning approach: these theories assume that our personalities are shaped by the environment (i.e., that external forces shape personality)  Some believe that personality is learned  Note: No single approach is right or wrong. ▯ Psychoanalytic Approach  Freud’s Approach  Psychoanalytic Theory  Why has Freud’s theory been so impactful? o It’s a GLOBAL theory  It attempts to explain all human behavior  Unfortunately, this is also the theory’s major drawback o It’s impossible to test or validate  Two instincts: sex and aggression o Were all trying to maximize ratifying the two instincts, while at the same time minimizing the possibility of being punished or feeling guilty.  Three levels of the mind (consciousness) o Conscious o Preconscious (tip of the tongue phenomenon) o Unconscious  Id  Ego  Superego  3 Components of Personality o Id: where the instinctual energy is located  Source of sexual/aggression energy  Pleasure principle  Needs immediate gratification  Demanding and irrational  No concern with morality/ethics/reality  If you didn’t have an Id you’d be beating people up and raping everyone o Ego: seeks sexual and aggressive pleasure, but only in accordance with reality.  Satisfies the id’s needs without causing the individual harm  Reality principle  Helps the id o Superego: moral faction of personality  Controls the id by internalizing parental authority  voice in the back of the head telling you to do the right thing  developed through upbringing  big weapon when ignored is guilt  Our unique personality depends, in part, on the relative strengths of our id, ego and superego  For example/// o When id strongest -> Ted Bundy (murder) o When superego strongest -> Mother Theresa (saints)  When three elements are out of balance “free-floating anxiety” develops.  The ego deals with getting rid of this anxiety through “ego defense mechanisms” o Behavioral strategies that we unconsciously use to distort or deny reality (read about these in the text) ▯ The development of personality  Freud focused primarily on the “life force” or sexual energy. He called this energy “libido” (or libidinal energy) o Force is in the id o Focuses on immediate sexual gratification o We are born with this pleasure-seeking energy o As we develop from infants…  This is libidinal energy focuses on different parts of our bodies at various ages  And, each body part brings actual sexual pleasure at that particular age. o So in the libidinal energy tries to attain pleasure at each stage  If pleasure is not attained at a certain stage, we get “stuck” at that stage  We become “fixated” at that state and this is produces abnormal behaviors later in life  Personality develops while passing through the stages o Freud’s Psychosexual Stages  1. Oral Stage (birth – 1.5 yrs): sexual energy centers on attaining pleasure form mouth region  2. Anal Stage (1.5-3yrs): pleasure is attained form the anal area. During potty training, children find bowel movements pleasurable.  Two basic adult personality types will develop if a child becomes fixated at the anal stage  Anal retentive (neat, clean, tidy)  Anal expulsive (messy, dirty, slobs) – didn’t get pleasure during anal stage  3. Phallic Stage (3-6 yrs): several landmark insights occur to the child during this stage:  the child learns the physiological difference between males and females  child becomes aware of sexuality  child becomes aware of the sexual nature of the relationship between mom and dad  Period of “homo-social bonding” – boys play with boys and girls play with girls – cooties  An important complex must be resolved at this stage for the child to grow into a sexually healthy adult  For males – Oedipus complex  For females – electra complex  Oedipal complex (males only) o A sexual desire for mother develops o A hatred for father develops o Fear of castration by father if he should learn of the love for the mother o Resolution: boys finally come to grips with the fact that they can’t have their mother sexually, and a warm relationship develops with mom and a “pal” relationship with dad o The boy beings to imitate dad’s behavior to get mom’s attention  Electra complex (females only) o The girl realizes she doesn’t have a penis o Develops “penis envy” (jealous of males for having penis) o Attaches love to father to “symbolically” attain a penis o A desire emerges to marry the father and have children with him o Resolution: most girls realize that marrying the father is impossible and begin to imitate the mother’s behavior in an effort to get the father’s attention  Note: when both complexes, resolution is attained by identifying with the same- gender parent in hopes of attaining the attention of opposite-gender parent.  4. Latency stage (6-12 yrs): here the libido takes a much needed break  5. Genital stage (13 & up): stage we are in now o Note:  Freud’s theory was based on the case-history of his own self-analysis and 12 mentally ill women!  Why was sex such an important facet of Freud’s theory?  Freud believed that incorporating sex into his theory, it would give him a link to biology (a well- accepted science at the time). Trait Approach  Trait theories assume that our personalities consists of characteristics that are largely inherited from out parents and ancestors  Note: the goal of trait theories is to try to describe (not explain) personality  That is these theorists attempt with their research to identify the major dimensions on which everyone’s personality differs.  Big Give Personality Factors – OCEAN - o Emotional stability or neuroticism o Extraversion: reserved vs. outgoing o Openness: open to trying new things o Agreeableness: likely you are to agree or disagree o Conscientiousness: how aware you are your actions and their effects  For the Big Five characteristics, personality assessment questionnaires have been developed  Thus, we can calculate peoples’ personality scores on the 5 dimensions.  It is still under debate as to whether or not people’s traits are truly genetically determined or simply learned from environment  Recent data indicate that over 50% of individual differences in personality are, in fact, due to genetic influences o Study done at Minnesota called Minnesota Twin Studies


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.