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SOCY 305 Notes (4/5/16 - 4/7/16)

by: Julia Lensch

SOCY 305 Notes (4/5/16 - 4/7/16) SOCY 305 001

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Sociology > SOCY 305 001 > SOCY 305 Notes 4 5 16 4 7 16
Julia Lensch

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These notes cover the lectures on 4/5/16 - 4/7/16. Enjoy!!
Sociology of the Family
Jennifer M. Augustine
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 305 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jennifer M. Augustine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Sociology of the Family in Sociology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
 1965: Turning Point o Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965  Hart-Celler Act  Abolished earlier quota system based on national origin and established new policy based on reuniting immigrant families  During 1960s, flip in century of immigrants and changed to immigrants from Latin America and Asia  A lot of these immigrants are children o Majority of these children are second generation (born in US, living with immigrant/undocumented parents)  Incline of children with unauthorized, immigrant parents  Undocumented immigrants going to smaller cities like Georgia and North Carolina  Story of Immigrant Families o Varies by region, ethnicity, national origin, family o Socioeconomic circumstances, generation, and citizenship  Immigrant Children o 25% of all children are immigrants  21% are first generation  4% are second generation  Poverty o More likely to be poor than nonimmigrant children  Children with immigrant parents o Less likely to be enrolled in pre-k o Less likely to graduate high school  Why do immigrant children face such disadvantages? o Changes in experience of immigrants o Most assimilate into poor, urban communities  Manufacturing jobs occupied by earlier generations of immigrants are far fewer  Low levels of education or education devalued Children of Undocumented Parents  Far greater hardships o Parents lack access to many social safety net programs (Welfare, SNAP, Medicaid) o And other rights (driver's license, education) o Illegal immigrants NOT granted in-state tuition  Little access to good paying jobs Deportation  Increased from around 190,000 deportations in 2001 to close to 400,000 per year in 2011  In 2013, about 72,000 with U.S. born children were deported Transnational Families  Families with members living in different nation states  Aren't new, have been there since the Mayflower  What has changed? Who migrates to/from which countries? "Divided by Borders" (Reading)  Derby conducted 142 formal interviews with migrant parents, children, and caregivers  Longitudinal interview with members of a group of 12 families over 4 years  Ethnographic work in the mixteca of Mexico and central New Jersey Leave their Children Behind...  Dangerous to cross the border  Intended to make money and send it back home to children  Life in the U.S. wasn't permanent  Difficult to find jobs and ones they did find were dangerous, dirty, and unwanted, bad pay as well  They worked long hours in order to make the investment worth their while  Poor housing/low level "Migrant Paradox"  Limited economic opportunities, but better than what was offered back home  Stay longer  Negative effects on families (family relations => sad, disillusionment)  Intended expectations don't match reality Mass Incarceration --> incarcerating people in masses Rise in Incarceration  100/100,000 (in 1970) --------> 500/500,000 (today)  Rates here today are seven times higher than other countries  U.S. 25% of world's incarceration  11% of American men can expect to go to prison; 6.5% of men and women  2 million incarcerated right now in US  1 in 36 Americans either incarcerated, on probation, or parole  Increased crime? Not necessarily Causes of Mass Incarceration 1. Changes in Criminal Justice Policy a. War on drugs <----- became priority – DEA formation b. Mandatory sentencing clause i. Set sentences based on what your offense is 1. Removed some power 2. Persecutors = harsher = lot longer in prison c. Decrease in mental health help/resources 2. Change in economy/urban life for less educated men a. Communities became devastated b. Decline in manufacturing jobs c. Increase in service jobs Why relevant to family?  Many men/women are parents  Puts further risk on children who are already disadvantaged  64% of white incarcerated men are fathers  81% of Hispanic incarcerated men are fathers  70% of black incarcerated men are fathers  Many are also married  Many children whose parents are affected are young (<10 years old) Effects on Children  Intergenerational  Children are more aggressive  Children are more depressed  Low levels of school performance  Very shameful-strong feeling of stigma for children Effects on Other Family Members  Family income  Family costs (visits/calls/legal fees/accounts)  Social isolation and depression  Risk of divorce/separation Problems that Persist After Men Are Released  Employment  Housing  Mental/physical health  Child support arrears --> creates a void  Access to social safety nets Are these bad effects justified? Who is incarcerated?  Mostly blacks then Latinos, least amount in prison => whites Is Crime Equally Distributed?  Blacks and whites use drugs at equal rates  High educated => more likely to rape  Unfair stop/search policy and policing in poor neighborhoods Consequences of Policing  1 million black children currently have parents in jail  Children with parents in jail are disproportionally poor  Life chances are negatively affected  Structure/society problems need to be fixed


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