Week 5 notes
Week 5 notes HIST 2340W
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Professor Brasinzky in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see US Diplomatic History in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Week 5 Woodrow Wilson 0 O O 0 Pioneer in field of political science President of Princeton University and Governor of New Jersey Elected on domestic reform platform Earlier challenges I Mexico I ChinaIapan and Asia Wilson s speech I Place the Latin American countries have been exploited and it is the job of USA not to exploit them I He ennobles them and argues for self determination Wilson s challenges Mexico I Wilson was hostile to Huerta and refused to recognize his government Because he established a military dictatorship in Mexico non democratic I Tampico Affair Crew of USS dolphin mistakenly arrested Huerta refuses 21 guns salutes US occupies port of Veracruz I Carranza was favored by Wilson but Carranza demanded that US forces leave Veracruz I Argentina Brazil and Chile step in and negotiate Huerta agrees to step down and US agrees to end occupation of Veracruz I Villa had wanted to become president and was alienated by Wilson support for Carranza I Border raids USA was only defending themselves in the situations not intervention It is about American national security Despite the fact that Wilson is trying to differentiate himself from the formers he still states that the Latin America s government are uncivilized 9 moral obligation to turn all governments in democracies I General John G Pershing launches expeditions against Villa in 1916 but Villa not captured 0 Wilson China and Japan I 1915 Japanese present 21 Demandsquot to the Chinese government I Iapan gains control over Manchuria and Shandong Provinces China is required to accept Iapanese advisers I Chinese government tells USA minister to China Paul Reinsch about the demands 0 US Responses to the 21 Demands I Lansing US could not allow question of territorial integrity to lead US into international entanglementsquot I Wilson wants US to be as active as the circumstances permit in showing ourselves to be the champion of the sovereign rights of Chinaquot I Additional loans given to Chinese government to check Iapanese imperialism and weaken Iapan s in uence 0 LansingIshii Agreement November 1917 I US acknowledges that Japan has special interest in China I Agree to respect open doorquot I Agree not to take advantage of World War I to seize more territory Origins of WWI o Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo 28 June 1914 0 Russian Support for Slavic Independence Movements 0 Alliance structures France UK Russia Iapan vs Germany Austria Hungary Ottoman Empire Initial Responses 0 Neutrality Declaration August 1914 I Why remain neutral USA will not take sides in any way because it would jeopardize trade with some nations USA by staying out of the war will be more in uential because it has the greatest capacity to be the neutral mediator when the war ends There will be divisions in the USA ideological ethnical I Lusitania Note 13 May 1915 On what basis does Wilson appeal to Germany Why is the issue of Freedom of the seasquot so important to Wilson 0 Will sink ships that are directed to trade and interrupt the capitalism and democratic order Wilson began sending warnings to Germany 0 Rules to modern welfare international law is binding regardless of the circumstances trying to coopt Germany into modern warfarequot o Idea of an entire war government by principals and law 0 Preserve trade and progress because they are the biggest benefactor of war since the European s production decreased 0 Wilson believes that commerce and trade are crucial to a liberal world order 0 Germany agrees momentarily to cease Uboat activities Meditation O O Colonel Edward House is sent to Europe to bring the European powers together and end the war Peace without victory speech 22 January 1917 What does Wilson want the world to look like after war I No sea barriers implies free trade I All countries have the right to decide their own destiny I National selfdetermination I No more entangling alliances Responsible for all the wars that have racked the whole European system I Free trade is critical for Wilson creates political trade more economic linkages that you have the lower the chance of commerce I The entire world will agree to be governed by a common set of laws What are the limitations of this approach I There are no incentives for European power to agree with these set of policies I Despite his desire to achieve peace without victory in the end he really cannot The Road to War 0 O Renewed Uboat warfare Zimmerman Telegram promises German reward for Mexico January 1917 Declaration of war April 2 1917 I Why does Wilson decide to go to war Freedom of seas Selfdetermination Vindicate the same principals that he was vindicating while they were neutral Revolution in Russia 0 O O Wartime scarcity led to massive strikes and abdication by Czar Nicholas II in March 1917 March to October 1917 Rule by weak provisional government reorganized 4 times but cannot maintain order 7 november 1917 Triumph of Bolsheviks Russia pulls out of war The Leninist challenge to wilsonianism O 0 Why do capitalists always seek to divide the world among themselves Why can there be no peace under capitalism According to Lennin why do capitalism divide the world among themselves I They need resources to keep the function of capitalist systems Why can there never be peace with capitalism I Within society there is always class struggle I Because there will always be inequality I Because they always look for more property more markets more resources and there is a scarcity of resources leading to unhappiness How did this go against Wilson I There are too much economic restriction I Preventing a liberal capital order I World made peaceful by liberalist principals I Lenin says that imperialism capitalism The 14 points speech Ianuary 1918 00000 WWI O 0 000 0 What did Wilson promise the world How is this an effective response to Leninism Self determination will prevail world peace will prevail Freedom of the seas Autocratic government in Germany is the one that is defeating freedom of the seas kind better imperialism Major events Iuly 1917 First American troops land in France October 1917 American troops first engage in combat March 1918 German launch five offensives to win war before US troops arrive in large numbers Halted in late Iune Iuly 1918 US forces stop German advances at Battle of Chateau Thierry August 1918 Battle of Amiens major allied counter offensive 9 November Kaiser Wilhem abdicates 11 November Armistice of Congress 13 December Wilson travels to Europe for Peace Negotiations British Objectives 0 Lloyd George I Maintain naval supremacy and remove Germany maritime threat I Maintain the British empire and expand British trade I Punish Germany militarily but not economically Italian Objective 0 Vittorio Orlando I Had joined war on the side of the allies in 1915 I Had been promised territory in Europe and German colonial possessions in exchange for entering the war French Objective 0 Georges Clemenceau Weaken Germany militarily and economically Receive heavy war reparations Alsace Lorraine should be returned to France had been ceded to Germany The end of imperialism NOT REALLY 0 Wellington Koo Chinese delegation calls for return of Shandong and end of extraterritoriality Korean delegation led by Syngman Rhee calls for end of Japanese colonialism March 1 movement and May 4 movement But they were completely ignored Treaty of Versailles Germany assumes responsibility for war Strict punitive measures Germany loses 10 of its territory Germany s colonies distributed among Britain and France as mandates Germany recognizes the independence of Czechoslovakia and Poland Covenant of the League of Nations The League fights 0 Henry Cabot lodge O O O O O Lodge and the irreconcilables fight against passing the league billquot in congress Fear that US forced could get pulled into war Germany American belief that fatherland treated too harshly Wilson s Public Relations campaign Lodge agrees to pass the treaty with their his own clause but Wilsom refuses to accept it and the USA ends up never joining the league of nations
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