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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2337 at George Washington University taught by Jessica C. Liao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
April 12, 2016 Indirect Rule: Colonialism and Postindependent Africa ● Sierra Leone and humanitarian crisis: ○ 1990s Revolutionary United Front used child soldiers to kill own parents ■ 1999 “Operation No Living Thing” in Freetown where people were killed and raped ○ Question, was this unique? Has there been more humanitarian crisis in Africa? ● Explaining the cause of Africa’s humanitarian crisis: ○ Robert D. Kaplan et a return to an older, primordial form of tribalism with modern weapons ○ NOT TRUE! tribals are organized, few tribal chiefs haveyrannize their fellowsrelatively egalitarian when compared to statelevel counterparts ● Another Explanation: ○ Colonialism and violence against indigenous populations ■ Leopold’s Belgian Congo ■ Coerced labor and economic extraction ■ Inhumane control or slaughter of local communities ○ Didn’t explain why African states are so weak ● Characters of brutal and weak stfailed states) ○ Failed to establish autholuntary compliance with the state’s wishes based on broad belief in government’s legitimacy ○ Used “despotic power” instead of “infrastructural power” to penetrate ● Fukuyama’s explanationindirect rule ○ Yes, colonialism has effect but more on indirect rule ○ Indirect rule: no direct presence of colonial government instead local ○ Term from Lord Frederick Lugards’ experience in Northern Nigeria and Hong Kong ■ Effort to expose European law and institutions oas rica w counterproductive instead better governed by local customs ■ Less European control, instead hierarchy with local chiefs ■ Had bureaucracy and centralized, not as hard due to long history of islam ○ Lugard’ use of customary laws in Northern Nigeria ○ Why “every African belonged to a tribe” didn’t work well in other parts? ■ Tribal identities overlao single central chief ■ Multiple sources of identities ● Mahmood Mamdani’s critique of indirect rule: ○ Decentralized despotism ○ Tax collection by coercaise revenue and forced labor for European agriculture ○ Converting customary land tenure into modern property right ■ Create “big man” ■ Tribal chief = European feudal lord ● Modification of the effect of indirect rule: ○ The colonial authorities were able to impose their wishes in cehile age, w Africans resisted it ○ Compared to New World, Africa did not get as influenced by European institution ● Colonialism (French way) ○ Direct Rule ■ Belief in Roman law ● Direct rule didn’t make a difference because LIMITED RESOURCES and knowledge given ○ Local communities as agents of French states without traditions legitimacy ○ No direct path for Africans to be French citizen; failure in recruitment and development of good governance April 14, 2016 Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya and Tanzania ● It is easierbuild nationstate when you have a homogenous society ○ Ex: Japan ● Why ethnicity matters? ○ Peruvian microcredgroups have higher loan default rates when members are from different cultural background ■ Microcredit loan for people in developing nations to help with building a business, no collateral ○ US municipalities wiigher levels of diversity raise less funding for public schools ○ Rural Kenyan communities witreater ethnolinguistic diversity have considerably less primary school funding, horse school facilities and maintenance of water wells ● Why ethnic diversity is bad for collective action? ○ Taste expectations: ■ Individuals from different ethnic grefer distinct type of public goods and leads to less consensus on what to fund ■ Individualrefer to fund things that help own group ■ Fail to explain how to improve this ○ Social sanctions in sustaining collective action ■ If society has social sanctions to prevent the disorganization of funding ■ Social sanctionsublic policies that promote interaction, the sharing of information and coordinating across groups may decrease inefficiencies due to diversity a. Sharing information helps understand other groups ■ Powersharing across groups within government a. Some countries give veto to minorities or delegate number of seats in legislature b. This fails to solve crucial ethnic conflicmay collapse) ■ Within group policing or elite coordination ■ Doesn’t explain how coordination was created in first place ● Nation building and political socialization: ○ Through mass media and education system,olitical leadership can implant citizens with “desirable” politicalncluding a strong attachment to nation over ethnic or regional identities ○ Imagined communities:using things reate national identity ■ Mass media has huge influence ■ Urban USA survey vs rural USA survey shows that urban feel more “American” ○ Possible explanation for tastes ○ Investment in social capiow much you trust each other ● Kenya vs Tanzania: ○ They sharesimilar geography, history and ethnic diversity but have different nationbuilding policies ■ Provide a good natural experiment ■ Looked at Kenyan town of Busia and Tanzanian town of Meatu ○ Similar ethnic compositimajor ethnic (7580% of whole minority is about 25%) ■ Very common and dangerous population make up ○ Similainterethnic relations/conflict in precolonial times ○ Swahili not main language and none of dominant groups involved in national politics ■ Local groups don’t get political resource because not in national politics ○ Community members lead funding of public goods ■ Community have to do it, not government ○ Identical response in survey on political and citizenship issues ● Differences: ○ National Language policy: ■ Tanzania’s swahilization of governmeake universal use of Kiswahili ■ Kenya has english, Swahili and others ○ Public School Curriculum: ■ Tanzania: political education is key a. Starts early so covers most of the population ■ Kenya: official geography, history and civics not until after 5th grade a. Big percentage of the population has dropped out before learning this information ○ Local government institutions: ■ Tanzania: village/district council is key to local organizations ■ Kenya: colonial style, depend on tribe chiefs ○ Leadership: ■ Tanzania: Nyerere (first president) fgainst tribalism and building a national identity ■ Kenya: Kenyatta and Moi were both tribal leaders, contributed to ethnic militia ○ Regional distribution of central government resources: ■ Tanzania: equitable regional distribution of publicn education, health and infrastructure since 60s ■ Kenya: distribution HEAVILY favored Kikuyu ● Research design: ○ Compare and examine how ethnic diversity affects Busia’s and Meatu’s school funding, school infrastructure quality and well maintenance ■ Well maintance connected to school funding ○ Take into account control variasuch as income level and religion) ● Results: ○ Quantitative: ■ Busia ethnic diversity and local provision of public goods have NEGATIVE relation ■ Meatu ethnic diversity and local provision of public goods have NO SIGNIFICANT relation a. Actually have positive relation between desk per pupil and public fund ○ What does it tell us? ■ Not ethnic that causes problems but government failure a. If they make effort to build national identity, ethnic division is NOT BAD ○ Qualitative: Interview ■ Busia ethnic rivalry over school ownership a key challenge of school fundraising a. No classroom built, classes took place under tree b. Sanctions not working welln ethnic diverse areas ■ Meatu ethnic divisions were MINIMAL in study district a. “This is Tanzania, we do not have that sort of problems” b. Ethnic “us vs them” is illegitimate ● Questions: ○ When is nation building a politically possible task? When is it not? ■ Leadership is very important, Kenya more affected by colonial system by Britain so chiefs are more important ■ Relations between politics, social elites and ethnic diversity ○ What’s the catch? ■ Local culture and customs get wiped out, conflict can break out in result, brutal nationbuilding leads to conflict
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