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Hist2001, Week 13 Notes

by: Jay Morgan

Hist2001, Week 13 Notes HIST2001

Jay Morgan
GPA 2.78

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About this Document

This week of notes covers the events around the 1968 revolutions in Paris and Prague as well as the Soviet Union's use of trying to suppress liberal social democracies through the Brezhnev Doctrine.
20th Century European History
Professor Ethan Katz
Class Notes
Eurohistory, 1968, revolution
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jay Morgan on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST2001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Professor Ethan Katz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see 20th Century European History in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Week 13 Notes 1968 – Year of Revolution In 1953, Stalin dies and the new policies on communist socialism emerge in different Eastern countries. - New premiere, Nikita Khrushchev, makes reparations for the what Stalin represented as the “incorrect” communism. The “Prague Spring”, Czechoslovakia  Czechoslovakia is under the control of the Soviet Union, led by Antonin Novotny.  It has the most developed middle class in the Eastern bloc. Larger number of doctors, lawyers, civil servants, etc…  In Prague, citizens demand for a more liberal socialism, but in 1960, the government becomes fully socialist. - In 1963, political tensions, economic downturn, and the need for reform sends citizens into a frenzy.  In 1967, students protest, led with the support of Alexander Dubcek - Demand a more open liberalism in Czechoslovakia, freedom of expression, circulation of literature and more economic freedoms.  On January 5, 1968, Novotny is replaced by Dubcek - Makes reforms to turn Czechoslovakia into a democratic socialist state.  Czechoslovakia is a part of the Warsaw Pact (Soviet treaty within the Eastern sphere of influence), but Soviet Union sees their increasingly democratic reforms as a violation of the pact. - The Soviet Union holds talks with Czechoslovakia. The talks do not stop the emergence of a socialist democratic system. The Warsaw members prepare for military intervention.  On August 21, Czechoslovakia is invaded. Dubcek and other party leaders are arrested. Czechoslovakia reverts back to its old self like during Novotny’s leadership. Hungary and the Brezhnev Doctrine  The Brezhnev Doctrine gives the Soviet Union the right to interfere in Eastern bloc countries who are under the threat of capitalism.  Hungary in 1956 sparks an uprising for a more liberal democratic socialist government. Student protests organize and become nationwide.  The communist government is temporarily overthrown into Soviet Union sent troops to crush the uprising. - The event showed the communism is not adaptable and that only the use of force could help keep its control. May 1968 in Paris, France  France has enjoyed a rapid economic growth after the end of the second world war. (The Thirty Glorious Years, 1945-75)  In France, education is limited to class. Student dorms are gender separate and over-crowded.  Workers are also displeased was the capitalist society and working conditions brought upon be consumerism.  Protests begin with students frustrated with the Nanterre University. Students occupy the building in order to induce better conditions for the school - Later, workers join the protests and occupy factories and buildings. Hundreds of thousands go on strike. - Demands soon include new elections, and new party change.  Charles de Gaulle, the president of France, temporarily leaves France in order to get consultation from NATO in West Germany. Military reaction expected, but is ultimately not the course of action for de Gaulle.  France is shut down, with over 22% of the nation protesting. De Gaulle returns to France and allows new elections. De Gaulle is voted out of office. Legacy: Faith in the French educational system is broken (was used to make loyal citizens). Protests influence foreign migrant workers in imperialist colonies. Leads to the Europeans relinquishing colonial holdings over time. 1970s and 80s  Europe’s economy slows down with a worldwide recession. - Oil embargo on the United States by OPEC - Labor demand decreases, rise in worker’s rights  The Helsinki Accords, 1975 o Recognizes the borders of Europe post-WWII - Soviet Union gets recognition over its borders in the Eastern Bloc. - The West is concerned about human right violations in the Eastern Bloc, but the accords now make these issues an internal matter.  In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev is now the premiere of the Soviet Union. - Aims for domestic and economic reforms. *Perestroika and Glasnost will be talk about in next weeks notes*


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