management chapter 12 & 13 for final exam
management chapter 12 & 13 for final exam MGMT 301
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Mitchell on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 301 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Leah Sheppard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management and Organization in Business, management at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Management 301 Exam 3 Notes Chapter 12 Continued Work Attitudes – Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction: an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job o The biggest predictor of job satisfaction is the work itself – people generally prefer interesting and challenging work over routine work o Personality also predicts job satisfaction – happier people are more satisfied o Pay does correlate positively with job and life satisfaction, but after a certain level it levels of (after $75,000 a year we see no increase in happiness or reduction in stress or sadness) More money, more problems Work Attitudes – Organizational Commitment Organizational Commitment: a state in which an employee identifies with the organization and its goals and desires to stay in the organization o Afective: I want to stay o Normative: I should stay o Continuance: ??? Emotions Emotion: strong feeling directed toward something or someone o Emotional Labor or Emotion Work: job requires employees to display certain emotions and suppress others, in accordance with organizational display rules Examples: Flight attendants Customer Service Workers Food service Nurses, doctors Teachers Emotional labor leads to: Burnout Emotional exhaustion Turnover Stress Stress: state of tension caused by demands, constraints, or opportunities Stressor: anything that causes stress Work stressors o 34% of workers in one survey said their jobs were stressful enough to make them consider quitting o Biggest work stressors o Unclear roles/tasks o Interpersonal problems o Too much responsibility o Too little control Consecutive Stress: encourages increased effort, stimulates creativity, enhances persistence Destructive Stress: impairs performance, brings on burnout (mental exhaustion) Stress can kill! It reduces resistance to disease Basics of Motivation The processes that account for intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal o Intensity: how hard a person tries o Direction: where effort is channeled o Persistance: how long an effort is maintained Efort and Performance o Job Performance = motivation x ability x situational constraints Need Satisfaction o People are motivated by unmet needs o Types Low-order Higher-order Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Physiological: food, water, oxygen, shelter o Safety: security of resources o Belongingness: intimacy, friendship, love o Esteem: independence, achievement, status o Self-actualization: meaning, creativity, challenge How might organizations use this theory? o Make sure that employees have their lower needs met first Hygiene Factors: Sufficient pay, health insurance, safe work environment o Then work on providing opportunities for mastery and further development (satisfiers) Two Major Types of Rewards that Drive Motivation o Extrinsic Reward: tangible things Contingent on the performance of tasks Motivates people to perform basic behaviors Could even take the form of approval o Intrinsic Reward: intangible things Natural reward associated with performing task or activity for its own sake The Efect of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation o It’s complicated! Extrinsic reward signals competence = goof Extrinsic reward signals control = might be bad o It also depends on personality If you have internal locus of control, you might prefer pay-for- performance systems Theories of Motivation Equity Theory: we all want to be treated fairly, both in an absolute sense and relative to others o FACT: in 2010, the average CEO was paid 343 times what the average employee is paid o Is this fair? What might this do to your motivation? o People will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly o Components Inputs: qualifications, effort, education, special skills, loyalty, positive attitude Outcomes: pay, benefits, job security, promotion, autonomy (anything of value to that person) Referents: the people we compare ourselves to Outcome/input (O/I) ration – we’re constantly striving for balance Under reward: ask for more, switch referents, rationalize, withdraw effort, sabotage Over reward: experience guilt and increase effort, switch referent, rationalize o Equity Sensitivity: people have different preferences for equity fairness Benevolents: more likely to accept under reward and feel uncomfortable with over reward Sensitives: have a preference for equity Entitleds: have a desire to be over rewarded o Motivating with Equity Theory Increase outputs where possible, decrease input when increasing output is not an option Make sure decision-making processes are fair through: Distributive Justice: perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed Procedural Justice: perceived fairness of the procedures used to make reward allocation decisions Interactional Justice: perceived fairness in how decisions are communicated to employees Expectancy Theory: people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe: o That their efforts will lead to good performance = Expectancy o That their good performance will be rewarded = Instrumentality o They care about those particular rewards = Valence o Motivation = Valence x Expectancy x Instrumentality o Motivating with Expectancy Theory Systematically gather information to find out what employees what from their jobs Some people might not want advancement or might be embarrassed by public recognition Take specific steps to link rewards to individual performance Empower employees to make decisions so that they feel capable (effort -> performance) Reinforcement Theory: behavior is a function of its consequences o Behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently o Behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently o Components Positive Reinforcement: behavior-> reward Negative Reinforcement: behavior -> removal of something unpleasant Punishment: behavior -> punishment Extinction: behavior -> removal of something pleasant Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement Reinforcement Contingencies o Continuous Reinforcement Behavior always leads to outcome Use during training o Intermittent Reinforcement: behavior leads to outcome on variable basis Fixed Interval Reinforcement: fixed period of time Variable Interval Reinforcement: variable period of time Fixed Ratio Reinforcement: fixed number of occurrences Variable Ratio Reinforcement: variable number of occurrences – works bes When employees are learning, use continuous reinforcement After behaviors are established, use intermittent reinforcement to maintain Rely mainly on positive and negative reinforcement, avoid punishment in organizations Avoid rewarding unexceptional behavior General Motivation Tips Think beyond monetary compensation o Offering travel or time off shows you care about employees’ work life balance Understand employees needs and personal goals Use praise when deserved and SPECIFIC praise, at that Leaders vs Managers Leadership: process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals A leader might not be in a formal leadership or managerial role Leaders are concerned about doing the right thing o Managers are concerned with things right Leaders focus on vision, mission, goals, and objectives o Managers focus on productivity and efficiency Traits that Make a Great Leader Decisiveness Charisma Intelligence Persuasiveness Dominance Extraversion Empathy Leadership Traits Trait Theory: leadership theory that holds that effectives leaders possess a similar set of traits or characteristics o Traits: relatively stable characteristics Abilities Personality Physical characteristics Tall, commanding Deep, confidence voice Physically fit Physically attractive “Leadership Qualities vs Competence: What Matters Most?” Harvard Review Article o Groups did a team survival activity (some with assigned team leader) o Break after 10 min – teams with leaders informed how individual members were doing. They were given the opportunity to choose a new leader o Only 55% of teams chose the most expert leader o Others chose people who were taller, louder, or more confident o They also found that the order of performance from best to worst was: Teams with expert leader Self-managing teams Teams with non-expert leader Tone of voice Have limited effectiveness in predicting successful leadership Extraversion used to be seen as key to leadership, but we know now it predicts leader emergence more than success More recently, there has been focus on Emotional Intelligence as a determinant of leadership success Ability to sense, understand, and respond appropriately to one’s own and other’s emotions Even if leaders aren’t born they do not share similar characteristics o Drive o Desire to lead o Honesty o Confidence o Emotional Stability o Cognitive ability o Knowledge o Energy So we could see certain characteristics as being a precondition to success It’s not enough, however, to have these characteristics Action and behavior is also important Leadership Behaviors Behaviors central to successful leadership o Initiating Structure: degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers By setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks (much of what we’ve talked about so far) o Consideration: extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, supportive shows concern, consults with employees INSERT 14.1 BLAKE/MOUTON LEADERSHIP GRID CHART Situational Theories of Leadership Different circumstances call for different leadership styles For example, when employees are more involved and proactive, introverted leaders manage them best Path-Goal Theory Leadership Styles o Directive = initiating structure o Supportive = show concern o Participative = consult o Achievement oriented = set high expectations
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