Forensic Anthropology, Week of April 11th
Forensic Anthropology, Week of April 11th Anth 310
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Intro to Forensic Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Johnson on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 310 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro to Forensic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Forensic Anthropology Week of April 11th Trauma Trauma defined ● Trauma: injury caused to living tissue by an outside force ○ Bludgeonsclubs ○ Projectilesbullets ○ Cuttings instrumentsknives ○ Chopping instrumentsaxes ○ Large moving objectscars/trains/etc ○ Ground surface ○ Also includes chemicals and extreme temperatures Relevant Issues for Law enforcement ● Trauma that occurred at time of death ● Force that caused trauma ● Number of wounds ● Sequence of wounds ● Placement of wounds ● All assist in determining the cause and manner of death Cause and Manner of Death ● Cause of Death: injury or disease that begins the process that leads to death ○ Is what gets the ball rolling ○ Rare to determine this by examination of injuries to bone ● Manner of death: the way a person died ○ Homicide ○ Suicide ○ Accident ○ Natural ○ Unknown Timing of Bone Injury ● Antemortem: before death ○ Bone will show signs of healing, including a callus ● Perimortem: around the time of death ○ Green bone will bend and snap back into place ○ Formation of fracture lines ○ Angles ends with jagged edges ● Postmortem: after death ○ Dry bone snaps like a twig ○ Most often no fracture lines ○ Flat ends with 90 degree margins Forensic Anthropology Week of April 11th Basics of Bone Trauma ● Fracture: complete discontinuity (break) through the bone due to sufficient force ○ Infraction: incomplete fracture ● Displacement ○ Surfaces that were once continuous no longer meet, or meet at an unnatural angle ■ Complete fractures ● Simple fracture: fragmentation of bone into two segments ● Comminute fracture: fragmentation of bone into multiple segments ■ Infractions ● Hinge fracture: fractured area attached to original bone meets at an unnatural angle ● Fracture Lines ○ Lines that originate near the point of impact and dissipate force across the bone surface ■ Radiating lines : lines dispersing outward in a sunburst pattern, from area of applied force ■ Hoop fractures: concentric rings around the area of impact caused by inward and outward bending of bone Forces that cause trauma ● Direction ○ Direction from which force contacts bone ○ Tensionforce that pulls on bone ■ Usually along longitudinal axis ■ Most common in dislocations ■ Often accidents ○ Compressionforce pushing down on bone ■ Cortical surface displaced inward (most often seen on the skull) ○ Torsiontwisting force ■ Fracture lines spiral down long axis of bone ■ Often accidents and child abuse ○ Bendingforce that impacts the side of bone at a right angle to its longitudinal axis ■ Break occurs on opposite side of where force is applied ■ Butterfly fracture ● Force comes in and a triangle of bone pops out ■ Greenstick fracture ● Bends and snaps back into place ■ Parry fracture ● Very specific fracture to the ulna, from self defense wound to the arm ■ Shearingforce that impacts the side of the bone but one segment of bone is immobilized Forensic Anthropology Week of April 11th ● Colles’s fracture ○ Specific fracture to the radius (tries to catch oneself with one's arms fracturing the radius with the force of the ground) ● Speed ○ Dynamic: sudden impact ○ Static: slow buildup ● Focus ○ Size of the area impacted by force ○ Can be wide or narrow
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