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Earth 120, Week 10 Note

by: alicekhanh

Earth 120, Week 10 Note ERTH 120

Marketplace > Santa Ana College > Earth Science > ERTH 120 > Earth 120 Week 10 Note
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About this Document

This note contains the summary of Chapter 7: Plate Tectonics + Chapter 2: Minerals
Phys Earth/Space Systems
Joanna Fantozzi
Class Notes
Earth Science
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by alicekhanh on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ERTH 120 at Santa Ana College taught by Joanna Fantozzi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Phys Earth/Space Systems in Earth Science at Santa Ana College.

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Date Created: 04/17/16
Chapter 7: Plate Tectonics 1.  Plate Boundaries  Plates move apart at divergent boundaries (constructive margins)  Sea floor spreading ­ upwelling of hot material from the mantle  creates new seafloor along mid­ocean ridges  Continental rifting ­ continents are separated by an ocean basin  Plates move together at convergent boundaries (destructive)  Subduction ­ oceanic lithosphere descends beneath an overriding  plate, eventually to be reabsorbed into the mantle  Continental collision ­ mountains are uplifted as continents collide,  because the lithosphere is to buoyant to sink/subduct  Plates grind past each other at transform boundaries (conservative)  Offset mid­ocean ridge segments  Cut through continental crust 2.  Hot Spots  The term “hot spot” refers to an area of volcanism that is situated above a mantle plume (cylindrically shaped upwelling of hot rock)  Plate motion pulls volcanoes off the active plume   Produces a “hot­spot track” of extinct volcanoes Chapter 2: Minerals 1.  Minerals  Earth’s elements combine to form minerals  Each element has a unique atomic structure   Protons (+) and neutrons (0) are located within the nucleus   Electrons (­) surround the nucleus  The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus  Atoms bond to one another to become more stable  Ionic ­ gain or lose outer valence electrons to form ions  Covalent ­ share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality  Metallic ­ valence electrons are free to migrate among atoms  A mineral is a substance that meets the following criteria:   Naturally occurring and solid (created within the Earth)  Generally inorganic (non­living)  Can be represented by a chemical formula (recipe of elements)  Orderly crystalline structure (arrangement of elements) 2.  Resources  Feldspar is the most common mineral in the Earth’s crust  Ores contain metal­rich minerals and can be mined for profit  Resources can be removed from the ground by open­pit mines and  underground mines  Mineral extraction and processing leaves a big footprint  Minerals make up all of Earth’s rock and sediment


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