Earth 120, Week 10 Note
Earth 120, Week 10 Note ERTH 120
Santa Ana College
Popular in Phys Earth/Space Systems
Popular in Earth Science
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by alicekhanh on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ERTH 120 at Santa Ana College taught by Joanna Fantozzi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Phys Earth/Space Systems in Earth Science at Santa Ana College.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Chapter 7: Plate Tectonics 1. Plate Boundaries Plates move apart at divergent boundaries (constructive margins) Sea floor spreading upwelling of hot material from the mantle creates new seafloor along midocean ridges Continental rifting continents are separated by an ocean basin Plates move together at convergent boundaries (destructive) Subduction oceanic lithosphere descends beneath an overriding plate, eventually to be reabsorbed into the mantle Continental collision mountains are uplifted as continents collide, because the lithosphere is to buoyant to sink/subduct Plates grind past each other at transform boundaries (conservative) Offset midocean ridge segments Cut through continental crust 2. Hot Spots The term “hot spot” refers to an area of volcanism that is situated above a mantle plume (cylindrically shaped upwelling of hot rock) Plate motion pulls volcanoes off the active plume Produces a “hotspot track” of extinct volcanoes Chapter 2: Minerals 1. Minerals Earth’s elements combine to form minerals Each element has a unique atomic structure Protons (+) and neutrons (0) are located within the nucleus Electrons () surround the nucleus The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus Atoms bond to one another to become more stable Ionic gain or lose outer valence electrons to form ions Covalent share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality Metallic valence electrons are free to migrate among atoms A mineral is a substance that meets the following criteria: Naturally occurring and solid (created within the Earth) Generally inorganic (nonliving) Can be represented by a chemical formula (recipe of elements) Orderly crystalline structure (arrangement of elements) 2. Resources Feldspar is the most common mineral in the Earth’s crust Ores contain metalrich minerals and can be mined for profit Resources can be removed from the ground by openpit mines and underground mines Mineral extraction and processing leaves a big footprint Minerals make up all of Earth’s rock and sediment
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