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BIO NYA - week 1

by: Sophie Dickins

BIO NYA - week 1 BIOL 110

Sophie Dickins
John Abbott College

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About this Document

These notes cover basic properties of life as well as basic scientific principles.
Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity
Dr. Patricia Foam
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie Dickins on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 110 at John Abbott College taught by Dr. Patricia Foam in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity in Science at John Abbott College.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
1 Chapter 1 – The Basics Levels of biological organization 1. Biosphere 2. Ecosystem 3. Communities Many of the levels are 4. Population so complex that they 5. Organism are considered different fields of study 6. Organ/System 7. Tissue 8. Cell Fig 1.4 9. Organelle 10. Molecule Properties of life 1. Order 2. Evolution 3. Response to environment 4. Regulation (Homeostasis) • Various mechanisms that act to prevent changes in the environment inside our bodies • In order to regulate internal environment must have: Receptor, control center, and an effector 5. Energy required (cellular respiration and photosynthesis) 2 6. Growth and development 7. Reproduction (DNA) Fig1.3 Scientific Method Fig 1.24, 1.25, 1.29 1. Make a set of observations – usually these lead to questions 2. Specify the biological question you are asking. 3. Put the question in the form of a biological null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis with prediction(s) 4. Put the question in the form of a statistical null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis with prediction(s) 5. Determine which variables are relevant to the question. 6. Determine what kind of variable each one is. a. Qualitative: Measurement variables are always a number. Eg length, weight, pH, bone density, # of bacteria, time. b. Qualitative variables classify observations into discrete categories that can be 3 expressed as a word. Eg. Gender (the possible values are male or female), ankle condition (values are normal, sprained, torn ligament, or broken), or color of a person's eyes. 7. Design an experiment that controls or randomizes the confounding variables. 8. Based on the # of variables, the kinds of variables, the expected fit to the assumptions, and the hypothesis to be tested, choose the best statistical test to use. 9. Do the experiment. 10. Apply the statistical test you chose, and interpret the results with regards to your hypothesis 11. Communicate your results effectively, usually with a graph or table. When the hypothesis has been tested by many independent experiments (by many different labs) and it still holds up it is called a theory. 4 While a hypothesis may be specific to a species, the theory that results from all the experiments must be able to be applied generally across many different species. Often times this theory eventually results in a mathematical model that can be applied to situations involving other species Note: • Scientific research is about a set of facts it’s not about proofing or disproving. New information can always change theories • A hypothesis must be stated in a way that is testable. A statement is considered “testable” if evidence can be collected that either does or does not support it. • Conditions during the experiment must be identical Variability in Nature and Statistics Variables • Can be independent or dependent • An independent variable is a variable that is 5 deliberately changed by the scientist. Eg. • Grow if you grow shrimp with 10 different nitrate concentrations in their food and measure their growth rate nitrate concentration = independent variable growth rate you measure = dependent variable Step 1 Collect the shrimp growth measurements. Step 2 Average these numbers to get average growth at each nitrate concentration. In statistics this is called the mean Variance = distance from the mean of all the data points HOW FAR A SET OF NUMBERS ARE SPREAD OUT A small variance indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean and hence to each other, while a high variance indicates that the data points are very spread out around the mean and from each other Example: 6 12, 8, 10, 10, 8, 12  MEAN = 10 28, 4, 6, 4, 2, 16  MEAN = 10 This set has a greater variance The Cell – the smallest unit of life that is considered to be independent. Fig 1.8, 6.8 – All living things made of cells • Various shapes possible • Cells create products, provide services (actions) and have the ability to replicate themselves (DNA) • The most important product that cells make is protein. • Cell membrane is an important part of the cell Biomolecules • Proteins are made through a two-step process that is so important to the cell that its explanation is called the “central dogma” of molecular biology and is one the main purposes for your DNA Fig 5.19, 1.11 7 Organization of Life into related groups Three Domains 1. Bacteria – prokaryotes 2. Archaea – bacteria that live in extreme environments 3. Eukarya – and 4 main Kingdoms • Kingdom Protista • Kingdom Plantae • Kingdom Fungi • Kingdom Animalia Fig 1.14, 1.15 Underlying mechanism responsible for the diversity of the domains is evolution Evolution • All organisms must evolve if they are to survive. • Natural selection drives a trend towards future generations being more suited to their environment • First cells were prokaryotic from them eukaryotes evolved (us) • Evolution uses trees to depict relationships • Contrary to pop-cultural opinion evolution can be seen and studied through experiments Fig 1.22 8 Ecology How do organisms interact with each other and with their environment? • All of beginning sections of this course will shape the info used in the ecology section Fig 1.5


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