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Biology 102 Notes, Week 13

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Notes, Week 13 BIOL102

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These are the notes for the week of 4/12-4/14, covering the rest of modern reptiles through immunity.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
Immunity, Biology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Biology 102 Notes, Week 13 o Birds – the feathered ones § Scales on legs and feet § Internal fertilization • Cloacal kiss § Hardened egg shells § Endothermic – use metabolism for core temperature (like us) § Anatomically adapted to fly: forelimbs modified into wings, the feathers are aerodynamic, honeycomb bones with spaces making them lighter, allowing them to stay up in the air • More efficient heart (4 chambers) and respiratory system o Air sacs extend into the body, ensures complete circulation of air • Large keel bone with large breast muscles • Absence of organs: one ovary, a beak instead of teeth - Mammals o Characteristics § Mammary glands nourish young § Hair modified scales § Endothermic § 4 kinds of teeth • Molars, premolars, canines, incisors o Monotremes: egg-laying mammals § Duck-billed platypus • Has venomous spines § Spiny anteater o Marsupials § Bear young early § Development finished in a pouch § Koalas and kangaroos o Eutharians: placental mammals § Internal development of young, dependent on placenta (internal egg) § Grow faster § Born more fully formed § Better survival (compared to marsupials) Ch. 28, Animal Anatomy and physiology - Structure fits function - Animal body plans o Diversity determined by environment and evolution - Body plans adapted for exchange of materials with the environment o Occurs through an aqueous medium o Interstitial fluids (body fluids) - More cell mass leads to specialization o Development of organ systems o Better exploit different environments - Levels of organization o Cell o Tissue o Organ o Organ system o Body - 4 types of tissues o Epithelial tissue § Coverings for internal and external body surfaces (skin, stomach lining, other organ linings) § Contains cells that are closely jointed (so things don’t leak out) § Barrier to pathogens § Glandular • Secretes substances (digestive system) § Classified by shape and # of layers • Simple (1 layer) vs stratified (2+ layers) o Squamous o Cuboidal o Columnar o Connective tissue § Binds and supports other tissues § Transport and storage § Contains cells scattered within an extracellular matrix • Solid, semifluid, or fluid matrices o Muscle tissues § Movement § Composed of long cells called muscle fibers § Skeletal: many contractile units • Striated • Voluntary § Smooth: spindle shaped cells • Not striated • Involuntary § Cardiac: heart muscle • Striated • Involuntary o Nervous tissue § Senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal - Mammalian organ systems o Integumentary, skeletal, nervous, muscular, excretory, digestive, endocrine, respiratory, immune and lymphatic, circulatory, reproductive o Function together to carry out life processes o Four tasks § Maintain an internal environment § Acquire and use energy/dispose of biproducts § Protection § Reproduction - Homeostasis o Maintaining a steady state of the internal environment § Solute and H2O concentrations § Temperature o Responds to negative feedback § What’s being produced will turn off production - Organ systems use energy o Animals use chemical energy from food for § Growth, development, repair, homeostasis o One-way flow - Bioenergetics o Study of energy flow in biological organisms § Metabolic rate – energy used in a time period o Measured by § Rate of heat loss § O2 consumed § CO2 produced o Strategies § Endothermy: birds and mammals • High metabolic rate o Constant body temperature/eat constantly • BMR – basal metabolic rate o Basic energy used at rest o Looking at calories § Ectothermy: reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates • Metabolic rates determined by external sources • SMR – standard energy used at a set temp Chapter 34 – immunity - The body’s defenses o Recognition of self and non self § PAMPS – pathogen associated molecular patterns • Antigen - Defenders – white blood cells o Come from the marrow, the stem cells there that multiply and differentiate - WBC’s o Phagocytes – engulfs PAMPS § Neutrophils – short lived § Macrophages – bigger, longer lived § Dendritic cells – bigger, longer lived, plays a role in adaptive immunity § Basophils and mast-cells – inflammation (release histamines, granular) § Eosinophils – parasites, act as an army overall § Lymphocytes – t-cells and b-cells • B-cells come from bone marrow • T-cells are produced in bone marrow but finish development in thymus § Natural killer (NK) cells – - The lymphatic system o Two main functions § 1. Circulates/stores WBC’s § 2. Interstitial fluid o Works with the circulatory sytem - First line of defense o Surface barriers § Physical – skin, epithelial lining § Mechanical – tears, digestive enzymes, keeping things from getting inside, cilia, § Chemical - 2 line of defense o Barriers breached o Innate immunity (relying on enzymes, white blood cells) o 1. Phagocytes § Neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells § Engulfs antigen § Secretes cytokines: signals more phagocytes • May trigger fever or pain o 2. Activate complement (30 different protein) o Both trigger inflammation § Bacteria invade a tissue § Mast cells release histamines § Dilates blood vessels, more blood moves to that area § Capillaries become leaky, phagocytes and complements move into tissue § Activated complement binds to bacteria § Phagocytes engulf the complement-coated bacteria - Third line of defense: adaptive immunity o Tailored defense mechanisms o Phagocytes activate lymphocytes § Display infection § Secrete cytokines • Stimulate clonal selection o 4 characteristics to adaptive immunity § 1. Self vs. nonself recognition • Marker is straight chained § 2. Diversity § 3. Specificity • Each b-cell is specific to a specific antigen § 4. Memory • Remembers the antigen, and releases antibody molecules - Immunological memory o First exposure has a slower immune response than the second exposure - First-step antigen alert o WBC’s screen lymph o Engulf and display antigen o First responders: helper t-cell § Clonal selection occurs • Effector • Memory § Effector helper t-cell • Stimulates both adaptive immune responses • Secretes cytokines stimulate mitosis


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