Traditional World Music Pop Part II
Traditional World Music Pop Part II MUSI 3583 503
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MUSI 3583 503
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Bradford MacGyver DDS
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Dixon on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 3583 503 at Oklahoma State University taught by Kunzel, Stephen N in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see World Traditional Music in Music at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
American Pop Music (Part II) Elvis Presley Born to poor family, listened to Delta bluesman “King of Rock n Roll’ Hired Colonel Tom Parker who sold his contract to RCA (was on Sun) o First record = Heartbreak Hotel Hound Dog first ever to reach No. 1 on the Pop charts, the R&B charts, and the Country & Western charts all at the same time Each year from 1956 until his death in 1977, there was an Elvis hit that placed in the American Top 40 Most celebrated TV appearance were on the Ed Sullivan Show between 1956 – 1957 o Vowed to never book Elvis until his ratings suffered o Paid $50,000 for 3 showings ` 60 million viewers fused divergent musical styles heavily from the blues and gospel enlisted in the army from 1958-60 o played in movies after he came home “Suspious Minds” and “In the Ghetto” were major hits Addicted to pills and severely overweight Found dead Aug. 16 1977 American Popular Music Twists the Hip The twist was first recoded by Hank Ballard Chubby Checker performed the song on Dick Clark’s American Bandstand The twist liberated Americans The Peppermint Lounge o Featured dancers on bars The dance became a huge business enterprise After the assination of JFK, music industry started to look to England British Invasion The Beatles began making music in Liverpool based on American blues records Began looking for venues Record store owner Brian Epstein became their manager o Made them wear matching suits Contacted George Martin, Parlophone Records executive o At least 3 chart topping singles o “Beatlemania” Appeared on the Ed Sullivan show o 73 million viewers A few months later, the Beatles held the top five positions on the pop singles charts—a success that has never since been challenged. The Beatles' Ed Sullivan Show appearance is one of the most significant events in American cultural history and easily marks the beginning of extraordinary social, political and musical changes in the American cultural landscape. the Rolling Stones, The Kinks, The Yardbirds, The Animals, and Cream (with guitarist Eric Clapton) collectively created a musical movement labeled the British Invasion mid-decade John Lennon and Paul McCartney began to approach songwriting in a much more serious fashion o needed to engage with drug culture o challenged by the music and poetry of Bob Dylan, who had met the band in 1964 Bob Dylan and the Folk Music Revival Performers like Joan Baez, The Weavers, Peter, Paul & Mary, and the Mamas and the Papas brought sweet harmonies and the acoustic sound back into the mainstream influenced by the music of Woody Guthrie, who had been a political activist during the 1940s and had a hit with his song "This Land is Your Land." Spoke out against the Vietnam War Folk music songwriters prided themselves on writing and performing their own songs, but "Blowin' in the Wind", "Don't Think Twice", and "It's Alright" were Dylan songs successfully recorded by other artists like Peter, Paul & Mary. With the 1965 success of his song "Mr. Tambourine Man," released by The Byrds, Dylan decided to investigate the possibilities of using electric instruments. o 1965 – performed at the Newport Folk Festival o criticized for selling out to pop music o demonstrated that mainstream pop could be more meaningful The Sounds of American Counterculture Timothy Leary The counterculture was centered at the intersection of Haight and Ashbury Streets in San Francisco, made famous in the 1967's "Summer of Love" hit "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)." The sound of the counterculture would be embodied by three outstanding musicians: Jimi Hendrix, Jim Morrison, and Janis Joplin, all of whom would be dead before age 30. Her appearance at the legendary Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 led to singing a recording contract with Columbia Records. The first release of "Piece of My Heart," a cover of a song by R&B artist Erma Franklin (sister of Aretha Franklin), flew to the No. 1 pop chart spot and gave Joplin her first major hit. Hendrix was clearly in the public eye following his performance of "The Star-Spangled Banner" at Woodstock in 1969. In this solo guitar performance, he improvised in between phrases creating sonic metaphors of the text. During the improvisations, Hendrix imitates the sound of machine guns, bombs, as well as wails. The cumulative effect is that the performance is more an impression of the national anthem than a direct rendition of it. Hendrix didn't achieve success with radio play and his music never placed high on the pop charts. His albums were extremely influential, but mostly to white audiences, as African-American listeners had a hard time identifying with Hendrix's publicly flamboyant persona. The Motown Sound Counterculture interested in African-American artists in Memphis, Atlantic, Muscle Shoals, and Detroit. Motown Records was one of the most important African-American recording studios o Owned by Berry Gordy, Jr. Gordy worked with Jackie Wilson and the Marvelettes He understood that young white audiences had disposable income and he took advantage of that Helped to integrate black culture with a white audience One of his innovations was to hire a group of musicians that played behind most of the artists (nicknamed the Funk Brothers) Motown was set up in a for mer photo studio in the back of Gordy's house, who affectionately called it "Hitsville U.S.A." It stands today as the Motown Museum. Motown songwriting was handled by artists such as William "Mickey" Stevenson and William "Smokey" Robinson, but the bulk of the hits came from the collaboration of Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Eddie Holland (known generally as H-D-H). The H-D-H team was responsible for hits by Mary Wells, Martha and the Vandellas, The Temptations, the Jackson 5, The Four Tops, Marvin Gaye, and Stevie Wonder. The American Soul: James Brown and Aretha Franklin James Brown created music based on short repeating riffs with a precise rhythmic and often syncopated background made out of driving punctuations, backbeat rhythms, and harmonically undefined chord progressions. he turned to guttural sounds evocative of the gospel tradition accompanied by dance movements that often served as cues for the band. Aretha Franklin, on the other hand, came directly from the gospel tradition. Her father was the Rev. C. L. Franklin from the New Bethel Church in Detroit, Michigan, one of the first pastors to make LP recordings and radio broadcasts of his sermons. Of course, Aretha sang with her father at the church, but he also encouraged her to enter the pop music world. Her career was set in motion when she teamed with Jerry Wexler of Atlantic Records. Franklin's ability to connect gospel with soul is clearly exemplified in her recording of Otis Redding's "Respect." This song connected deeply to the emerging feminist movement and is considered Franklin's signature tune. James Brown, the Godfather of Soul, and Aretha Franklin, the Queen of Soul, represent the most prominent American soul artists. Their gospel tinged rhythm and blues continued to integrate African-American music and mainstream America. The Disco Craze The 1972 hit "The Sound of Philadelphia" by MFSB (Mother, Father, Sister, Brother) was to become the theme song for the popular dance show Soul Train. The music was masterminded by Kenneth Gamble and Leon Huff, who collectively have had nearly 170 gold- and platinum-selling recordings. The lush sound of orchestral music blended with driving rhythms was the hallmark of music coming from Philadelphia. Raggae(Bob Marley) and Glam Rock(David Bowie) The 1970s saw a wave of movies featuring all African-American casts. Called blaxploitation films, they featured soundtracks of soul and funk music. Willie Hutch (The Mack), Curtis Mayfield (Superfly), and Isaac Hayes (Shaft) are three of the outstanding composers who contributed to this genre. This sound inspired the next huge dance craze: disco Disco emerged in gay or black neighborhoods DJs tried to figure out how to blend songs for the least interruption Van McCoy's "The Hustle," George McCrae's "Rock Me Baby," and Love Unlimited Orchestra's "Love's Theme" were the earliest songs to become part of the mainstream American culture. Fashion was very important Dances usually had to be practiced Record companies such as TK Records in Miami, Florida published only disco music. Special 12-inch records were created to extend song duration past the 15-minute mark, thus introducing the "extended mix." One of the very first 12-inch records was Donna Summer's "Love to Love You Baby," which clocked in at almost 17 minutes in length. Disco's frenzy peaked in 1977, when John Travolta starred in Saturday Night Fever, a fictional account of disco night life. In the film, Brooklyn teenager Tony Manero (John Travolta) goes to the Odyssey dance club every Saturday to rule the dance floor. The film's dance sequences have become icons of disco culture (Travolta later parodied these in Quentin Tarantino's Pulp Fiction). The soundtrack, by the Miami-based Bee Gees, sold more than 40 millions copies and placed No.1 on Billboard for 22 weeks. It remains one of the best-selling soundtracks of all time. In 1979, Chicago's DJ Steve Dahl created a promotion that signaled the demise of disco. For the price of a disco record and a few cents, patrons could go to a Chicago White Sox double- header where, during the intermission, Dahl promised to blow up disco records. MTV, Madonna, and Michael Jackson In June of 1980, Time-Warner communications launched CNN, a 24 hour news television station. The success of this unique programming paved the way for Viacom Communications to risk programming a television station devoted exclusively to promotional music videos. On August 1, 1981, the music video for "Video Killed The Radio Star" by the British group The Buggles was the first to be played on the new Music Television (MTV). For 24 hours a day, MTV streamed music videos much as radio stations streamed music. Its hosts were called VJs, a video equivalent of the DJ that played music on the radio. However, a certain “look” was required to get air time o This style is quickly imitated by fans Madonna is the Queen of Look in 1984 signed a recording contract with Sire Records (a division of Warner Brothers). Her first recording Madonna contained two dance oriented hits: "Borderline" and "Lucky Star." Madonna's videos sparked national outcries as they confronted contemporary issues of gender stereotype, religious symbolism, and racial inequality. Madonna is one of the megastars of late 20th-century American popular culture, but, unlike the purity of Jenny Lind from nearly a century earlier, she relies on sexual and religious provocation that appeals to a specific audience, namely young white teenagers. Rick James was not aired because he is black The first African-American artist's video to be regularly programmed on MTV was Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" from Thriller. Jackson performed this song live on TV in 1983, debuting his signature dance move, the moonwalk, which mysteriously has the dancer walking forward but moving backwards. This celebrated performance, which also commemorated Motown Records' 25th anniversary, earned Jackson an Emmy nomination. Michael Jackson's video for "Thriller" was marketed for weeks before MTV aired it on December 2, 1983. This fourteen-minute music video, directed by John Landis (who had made the successful American Werewolf in London two years before), is widely acknowledged as the best music video ever made. With an unprecedented budget of USD$800,000, Jackson and Landis defined the upper limits of what a music video could accomplish and launched the "group dance" as a staple of the genre. The Birth of a Hip-Hop Nation Blend of four essential elements o Graffiti, breakdancing, rap, and turntables Hiphop culture began in the Bronx Afrika Bambaataa would play beats during block parties and individuals r=would rap to the beat Borrowing a bass line from the disco group Chic, record producer Sylvia Robinson assembled the Sugarhill Gang to cash in on the novelty of hip hop sound. Rap's first Top 40 hit was the 14 minute "Rapper's Delight," recorded by the Sugarhill Gang in 1979. It was released only on the 12-inch single format popularized during the disco era. The release soon found itself at the center of a copyright infringement legal case involving Nile Rodgers, who created the famous bass line. It was not the last time hip hop would be involved in legal battles. Kurtis Blow's "The Breaks" followed in less than a year and landed the No. 4 spot on the R&B charts. 1998-Def Jam sold to Universal Music Group Compton, Cali. –birthplace of gangsta rap (N.W.A) Invention of the parental advisory label During the 1990s, East Coast and West Coast rap saw many violent conflicts. One well documented feud confronted two East Coast figures: Sean "Puffy" Combs, CEO of Bad Boy Records, and the Notorious B.I.G. (aka Biggie Smalls) versus the West Coast's Marion "Suge" Knight and rap superstar Tupac Shakur. By the time the feud quieted down, Notorious B.I.G. and Tupac Shakur had been murdered and Marion "Suge" Knight had been jailed for assault. Rap’s Folk Hero Tupac Shakur o Sold more than 75 million copies of his albums Began rapping with the local music group Digital Underground Albums are still being released, even after death
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