One week of notes 1/9-1/13
One week of notes 1/9-1/13 CHEM:1080
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Jilek on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM:1080 at University of Iowa taught by Yakov Letuchy in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
WEEK 3 Alkanes hydrocarbons having only CC and CH single bonds Acrylic alkanes have the general formula CnH2n2 and are called saturated alkanes because the have the maximum number of H atoms per C atom Cycloalkanes contain C atoms joined in one or more rings and have the general formula CnH2n All alkane molecules have names that end in the suf x llanequot Acrylic Alkanes Having Fewer than Five Carbons Methane o TeUahedralshape CH4 Ethane CH3CH3 H H l l HCCH ll HH Propane CH3CH2CH3 H H H HCCCH H H H The four carbons in butane can be a straight chain or branchedchain alkane Butane CH3CH2CH2CH3 o4C sinarow H H H H HCCCCH H H H H Isobutane quot same as butane CH3 CH3CCH3 H Butane and isobutene are isomers of each other 0 As the number of C atoms increase the number of possible isomers increases Classifying Alkanes of C s Name Structure 6 Hexane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 7 Heptane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 8 Octane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 Nonane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 10 Decane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 LO 122 Simie Alkanes Classifying Carbon Atoms A primary carbon C is bonded to one other C A secondary caribori 2 C is bonded to two other A tertiary bon 3 i C is bonded to three othir A qiuarternary carbon 4 C is bonded to four other C i quot i a C C 7 quotCH Bond Rotation and Skeletal Structures of Acyclic Alkanes Rotation can occur around carboncarbon single bonds The zigzag arrangement of atoms is the most stable because it avoids crowding atoms being really close together 0 The skeletal structures of alkanes follow the same zigzag pattern The IUPAC System of Nomenclature The lnternation Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IUPAC and provides a system of naming organic compounds 0 Systematic The IUPAC name 0 Generic The of cial internationally approved name of the drug ex ibuprofen 0 Trade The name assigned by the company that manufactures the drug ex motrin or advil Alkane Nomenclature The names of alkanes with substituents have three parts 0 The parent name indicates the number of C s in the longest continuous carbon chain 0 The suf x indicates what functional group is present 0 The pre x tells the indentity location and the number of substituents attached to the carbon chain Naming Substituents Carbon substituents are called alkyl groups 0 To name an alkyl group change the quotanequot ending of the parent group to quotylquot o Removing one hydrogen causes this change quot Number of C s Structure Name 1 CH3 Methyl 2 CH3CH2 Ethyl 3 CH3CH2CH2 Propyl 4 CH3CH2CH2CH2 5 6 Naming an Acyclic Alkane HOW TO Name an Alkane Using the IUPAC System STEP 1 Find the longest continuous carbon chain and name it with an quotanequot ending 0 Example 6 C s l hexane STEP 2 Number the atoms in the carbon chain to give the rst substituent the lower number 0 Count from left to right STEP 3 Name and number the substituents o If two or more substituents are identical use pre xes to indicate how many 0 2 di 0 3D tri 0 4 tetra
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